A molecule is a set of chemically bonded atoms. The electric charge of the molecules is neutral.
There is a definition of an older molecule that is less general and less precise: "A molecule is the smallest pair of a substance that can have independent and stable existence while retaining its chemical properties and certain physicochemical properties." By this definition there could be molecules with a single atom. Types of molecules
Molecules can be formed in two different ways:
- Discrete molecules: molecules can be formed by a well defined number of atoms…
What is an atom? Imagine you have a piece of iron. The parts. You still have two pieces of iron but smaller. The you come from again ... Every time have smaller pieces until you reach a moment that if the seeming from what you would no longer be hiero.
At this point what is left is an atom, an iron atom. Definition of atom
From a more formal way, we define as the smallest atom in an element can be divided without losing its chemical properties particle.
The origin of the word atom comes from the Greek, meaning indivisible. At the time that these particles were baptized…
Neutron moderator is a component part of the nuclear reactors. It is located in the reactor core. The function of the moderator is to reduce the speed of the neutrons in a nuclear fission reaction.
During nuclear reactions fission neutrons collide with fissile atoms (
The Greek philosopher Democritus of Abdera was the first in history to give a definition of atom as the smallest constituent of matter, in the V century B.C. The term "atom" is a Greek word that means "not divisible". But later, with the arrival of nuclear fission it's possible to split atoms to…
Isotopes are atoms whose nuclei have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons. Not all atoms of the same element are identical and each of these varieties corresponds to a different isotope.
Each isotope of the same element have the same atomic number (Z) but each has a different mass number (A). The atomic number is the number of protons in the atomic nucleus of the atom. The mass number is the sum of neutrons and protons of the core. This means that different isotopes of the same atom differ from each other only by the number of neutrons.
The items that can…
Nuclear energy is the energy in the nucleus of an atom. Atoms are the smallest particles that can break a material. At the core of each atom there are two types of particles (neutrons and protons) that are held together. Nuclear energy is the energy that holds neutrons and protons.
Nuclear energy can be used to produce electricity. This energy can be obtained in two ways: nuclear fusion and nuclear fission. In nuclear fusion, energy is released when atoms are combined or fused together to form a larger atom. The sun produces energy like this. In nuclear fission, atoms are split into…
An electron is a stable negatively charged elementary particle which is one of the fundamental components of the atom. For this reason it can also be defined as a subatomic particle. It is part of the group of leptons.
Electrons may appear in the free state (without being attached to any atom) or attached to the nucleus of an atom. There are electrons in atoms spherical layers of different radious. These spherical layers represent energy levels. The larger spherical shell, the greater the energy contained in the electron.
In the electrical conductors, the current flows results…
A nuclear power plant is a facility for the production of electricity using nuclear energy.
Its operation is similar to a thermic power plant. The difference is that the power source from a nuclear plant is nuclear fission of certain atoms while in a thermic power plant the heat source (thermal energy) from burning of one or more fossil fuels (coal, natural gas , fuel ..). As in a conventional thermal power plant the heat is used to generate steam that drives a steam turbine connected to a generator that produces electricity.
The thermal energy that nuclear power…
Nuclear fusion is a nuclear reaction through which two light nuclei of atoms, usually hydrogen and its isotopes (deuterium and tritium), are combined forming a heavier nucleus. This binding is usually accompanied by the emission of particles (in case of deuterium nuclei one neutron is emitted). This nuclear fusion reaction releases or absorbs a lot of energy in the form of gamma rays and kinetic energy of the emitted particles.This large amount of energy transforms matter to a plasma state.