In 2016, gross electricity production in Brazil was 579 TWh, including 381 TWh (66%) of hydroelectric power, 56 TWh (10%) of gas, 51 TWh (9%) of biomass and waste, 34 TWh ( 6%) of wind energy and solar energy, 26 TWh (4%) of coal, 16 TWh (3%) of nuclear and 15 TWh (3%) of oil.
The high dependence on hydroelectric energy leads to a certain climate vulnerability that is driving the policy to reduce dependence on it.
Around 40% of Brazil's electricity is produced by the national system of Eletrobrás a. About 20% of electricity comes from public utilities, and the rest comes…
Electricity consumption in Argentina has grown strongly since 1990. Per capita consumption was just over 2000 kWh / year in 2002 and increased to around 3000 kWh / year in 2015. Gross electricity production in 2016 was 147 TWh , with 75 TWh (51%) of natural gas, 38 TWh (26%) of hydropower, 21 TWh (14%) of oil, 3 TWh (2%) of coal, 8 TWh (5% *) of nuclear energy and 10 TWh of net import. The total electric power produced by fossil fuels is 99TWh.
In Argentina, approximately 10% of electricity comes from 3 operational nuclear reactors: the Embalse nuclear power plant, a CANDU reactor,…
The nuclear moratorium is the temporary suspension of the construction and start-up of nuclear power plants.
In 1983 in Spain a National Energy Plan was drafted in which a nuclear moratorium would be decreed in the country. The nuclear moratorium involved the blocking of 5 nuclear power plant projects out of the 7 that had been approved. Technically it was a brake on the dynamics of the development of nuclear energy in the country. What reasons caused the nuclear motive?
There are several reasons that motivated the creation of the nuclear moratorium:
Nuclear energy began to develop during the first decade of 1940. Initially, the research was aimed at the development and production of the atomic bomb. Subsequently, research began on other applications of nuclear energy; the investigation focused on the peaceful use of nuclear energy.
Currently, there are 30 countries in the world that have nuclear power plants for the generation of electricity. In any case, the number of countries that take advantage of nuclear energy is much greater since countries such as Denmark and Italy, which do not have any nuclear facilities, obtain about…
Mexico is rich in hydrocarbon resources and is a net exporter of energy. The country's interest in nuclear energy is based on the need to reduce its dependence on these non-renewable energy sources. In recent years, energy in Mexico is increasingly dependent on natural gas.
Energy growth in Mexico was very rapid in the 1990s, but then stabilized for a few years. Since 2007, a new growth in the demand for electric power was expected, up to an average rate of almost 6% per year.
In 2016, Mexico generated 20% of its electric power through clean sources, including…
To explain the history of nuclear energy we could distinguish three major stages:
- Physical and chemical scientific studies of the elements.
- The development of the nuclear bomb during World War II.
- Use of nuclear energy in the civil field.
Scientific studies cover this whole period since the first Greek philosophers began to define atoms, until the development of the first nuclear bomb. In this process, different scientists discover the presence of electrons, neutrons and protons and properties that make one atom more radioactive than another.…
Nuclear fusion is a nuclear reaction through which two light nuclei of atoms, usually hydrogen and its isotopes (deuterium and tritium), are combined forming a heavier nucleus. This binding is usually accompanied by the emission of particles (in case of deuterium nuclei one neutron is emitted). This nuclear fusion reaction releases or absorbs a lot of energy in the form of gamma rays and kinetic energy of the emitted particles.This large amount of energy transforms matter to a plasma state.
The nuclear fusion reactions can emit or absorb…
Nuclear power in Spain began in 1964 with the start of the construction of three nuclear power plants: the José Carbrera nuclear power plant, the Santa María de Garoña nuclear power plant and the Vandellós nuclear power plant 1.
The first reactor that was built was that of the José Cabrera nuclear power plant, Zorita. The type of nuclear reactor in the plant is a pressurized water reactor. Two years later the construction of the Santa María de Garoña nuclear power plant begins. In this case, a boiling water nuclear reactor…
The Chernoby nuclear accident was the worst accident in the history of nuclear energy. After 30 years, Chernobyl's current situation remains delicate.
The recovery of the nuclear accident zone and the cleaning products has resulted in a large amount of radioactive waste and contaminated equipment. The generated nuclear waste is stored in about 800 different sites inside and outside the 30 km exclusion zone around the Chernobyl nuclear reactor.
These nuclear waste are partially stored in containers or buried in trenches, which can lead to the risk of contamination of…
The experimental fusion reactor ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) is a large-scale scientific experiment designed to test the feasibility of fusion as an energy source. Currently the ITER fusion reactor is under construction in the south of France, in Cadarache.
At the industry level, nuclear fusion does not exist yet. Since the 50s under investigation on the use of the energy generated in the nuclear fusion of light atoms into heavier. The development of nuclear fusion is considered very important because of the advantage offered by the large amount of energy released…
Almaraz Nuclear Power supplied 16,000 million kWh annually throughout Spain.
The Alamarz Nuclear Power Plants I and II are located in the municipality of Almaraz de Tajo (Cáceres). The land owned by the central cover an area of 1,683 hectares located in the municipalities of Almaraz, Saucedilla and Serrejón Romangordo.
The Almaraz consists of two light water reactors of 2686 MW pressurized thermal, each with three cooling circuits, and manufacturing and construction is a Spanish contribution greater than 80 100. Both units use as fuel slightly enriched uranium oxide…
The Embalse nuclear power plant is a central power generation, located near the city of Embalse, province of Cordoba in Argentina.
In addition to power generation has other applications in nuclear medicine because thanks to their recharge nuclear fuel during operation, is also used to generate isotopes for medical applications, such as cobalt 60
From the point of view of the capacity of power generation, nuclear power plant reservoir has a capacity of 648 MWe gross power.
The operator is Nucleoeléctrica Argentina S.A. since 1994. Chronology of the construction…