Ability of a physical system to produce a job.
This definition, although it is the most widespread, can be misleading because of the vagueness of the term "capacity", and therefore, it is better to define the energy as what, when a work occurs, decreases in an amount equal to the work produced. Energy, then, is measured in the same units as labor. History of the study of energy
The notion of energy appears for the first time from the investigations of Joule and Carnot on the conversion of heat in mechanical work and thanks to the theory of Helmholtz in which it connects…
Mechanical energy can be defined as the ability to produce a mechanical work that a body possesses due to causes of mechanical origin, such as its position or its speed. There are two forms of mechanical energy that are kinetic energy and potential energy.
The mechanical energy of a body is the sum of its kinetic energy and its potential energy. Mechanical energy can be partially transformed into other types of energy, such as electrical energy (in a ventilator), and can be obtained by transforming other energies, such as chemical energy (in a person who walks).
The kinetic energy…
In physics, the potential energy is the energy that an object possesses due to its position in a force field or that a system has due to the configuration of its parts.
There are many types of potential energy, but the most common are:
- Gravitational potential energy that depends on the vertical position and the mass of an object.
- Elastic potential energy of an extended spring
- Electric potential energy of a charge in an electric field.
The unit of measurement of the International System of Units for energy is the joule (J).
Chemical energy is the potential of a chemical substance to undergo a transformation through a chemical reaction or to transform itself into other chemical substances. Forming or breaking chemical bonds involves energy. This energy can be absorbed or evolved from a chemical system.
The energy that can be released (or absorbed) by a reaction between a set of chemical substances is equal to the difference between the amount of energy of the products and the reactants. This change in energy is called the internal energy of a chemical reaction.
Since the strength of…
We define electricity as the form of energy that results from the existence of a potential difference between two points. When these two points are put in contact by means of an electrical conductor we obtain an electric current.
In physics, the electric potential energy, also called electrostatic potential energy, is the potential energy of the electrostatic field. This is an energy that has an electrical charge distribution, and is linked to the force exerted by the field generated by the distribution itself. Together with magnetic energy, the electric potential energy constitutes…
Kinetic energy is the energy contained in a body due to being in motion. The kinetic energy is the amount of work needed to accelerate a body of a given mass to a certain speed (linear or rotational). This energy obtained during acceleration will remain unchanged as long as this body does not change its speed.
In classical mechanics, the linear kinetic energy (without rotation) of an object of mass m traveling at velocity v is ½ · m · v2. In relativistic mechanics it is a good approximation only when the speed is much less than the speed of light.…
After the Second World War, the main use that was given to nuclear energy was the generation of electric power. Electricity, in this case, is generated in nuclear power plants. Generation of electricity through nuclear energy
The process to obtain electricity through nuclear energy is the result of a thermodynamic and mechanical process.
A nuclear power plant has the objective of transforming the internal energy of the uranium atoms into electrical energy. This process is…
Renewable energies are those energies that use an energy or fuel source that is considered inexhaustible or that can be regenerated at the same rate at which it is consumed.
Nuclear energy is not considered a renewable energy source since the fuel used, uranium is not limited. The consumption of nuclear fuel is higher than the generation of natural uranium.
The classification of renewable energies depends on the natural resources that are used. Among them we highlight:
- Solar photovoltaic and thermal energy.
- Wind power.
- Hydraulic energy.…
Nuclear energy began to develop during the first decade of 1940. Initially, the research was aimed at the development and production of the atomic bomb. Subsequently, research began on other applications of nuclear energy; the investigation focused on the peaceful use of nuclear energy.
Currently, there are 30 countries in the world that have nuclear power plants for the generation of electricity. In any case, the number of countries that take advantage of nuclear energy is much greater since countries such as Denmark and Italy, which do not have any nuclear facilities, obtain about…
In 1974 the French government made the decision to rapidly expand the nuclear power production capacity in France just after the first oil crisis. This decision was made in the context of a France with substantial competence in engineering, but with few autochthonous energy resources. Nuclear energy, with the cost of fuel is a relatively small part of the total cost, in this sense a reduction in imports was achieved and greater energy security was achieved.
As a result of the 1974 decision, France currently has a significant level of energy independence and almost the lowest…
In this section we analyze the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear energy. Nevertheless, most organizations related to nuclear energy are already positioned for or against the use of nuclear energy. On this site we try to make an objective analysis about this question, giving all the relevant information and offering a space for different conclusions.
The advantages and disadvantages of nuclear energy have made this alternative energy source one of the most controversial on the market today. Understanding the pros and cons of this energy source can help…
During the 70s and 80s Chile was in the process of modernizing the electric sector. During these years Chile liberalized its economy, privatized utility companies and opened the electricity sector to foreign investors.
During this time, however, Chile did not initiate any nuclear energy program unlike Argentina and Brazil. Chile did not seem willing to consider a nuclear energy option. Even in 2005, the future president Michelle Bachelet did not want to incorporate the development of nuclear energy as a valid option as part of her national energy policy.
To explain the history of nuclear energy we could distinguish three major stages:
- Physical and chemical scientific studies of the elements.
- The development of the nuclear bomb during World War II.
- Use of nuclear energy in the civil field.
Scientific studies cover this whole period since the first Greek philosophers began to define atoms, until the development of the first nuclear bomb. In this process, different scientists discover the presence of electrons, neutrons and protons and properties that make one atom more radioactive than another.…
A nuclear power plant is a facility for obtaining electrical energy using nuclear energy.
Its operation is similar to that of a thermal power plant or that of a solar thermal plant: from a source of energy thermodynamics is used to obtain heat, with the heat to get steam and with the steam to drive a turbine that will generate electricity.
The difference between the different types of electrical installations is in the energy source: a nuclear power plant uses the heat released in the nuclear fission reactions of certain atoms, in a thermal power station the heat source (thermal…
Atomic energy comes from the atom, it is the energy that holds together neutrons and protons of the nuclei of atoms. It is also known how nuclear energy, which comes from the nucleus. The name nuclear energy is used because most of the energy of an atom resides in its nucleus.
Two parts of the atom, the nucleus and the crust are differentiated. In the cortex, an indeterminate number of electrons orbit around the nucleus. The nucleus is composed of an indeterminate number of neutrons and protons. The amount of protons in the nucleus will determine the element that the atom is treated,…
Heat energy is the manifestation of the energy in the form of heat. All materials have atoms that form molecules with constant movement and vibration. This movement of atoms generates a kinetic energy called heat or heat energy.
If we increase the temperature of any element, we increase its heat energy. However, when we increase the heat energy of an element it's not guarantee that its temperature is increased. The temperature is the same during the stage of changes. A good example is heating some water. Little by little we obtain heat…
Nowadays, the main use given to nuclear energy is the generation of electric power. Nuclear power plants are responsible of doing this process. Almost all nuclear power plants in production are using nuclear fission since the nuclear fusion, despite being under development, is currently unfeasible.
The operation of a nuclear power plant is identical to the operation of a thermoelectric power plant working with fossil fuels like coal, oil or gas, except in the way of providing heat to the water for converting this one into steam. In nuclear reactors this process of producing heat is made…
What is nuclear energy? Nuclear energy is the internal energy in the atomic nucleus, that is, the central part of an atom. Atoms are the smallest particles in which a material can be divided. The nucleus of an atom is composed of two subparticles: neutrons and protons. These subparticles are held together due to energy links. At the moment in which these bonds are modified, a large amount of thermal energy is released in the form of heat.
Nuclear technology deals with the use of this internal energy for a wide variety of applications. The most well-known…
Mexico is rich in hydrocarbon resources and is a net exporter of energy. The country's interest in nuclear energy is based on the need to reduce its dependence on these non-renewable energy sources. In recent years, energy in Mexico is increasingly dependent on natural gas.
Energy growth in Mexico was very rapid in the 1990s, but then stabilized for a few years. Since 2007, a new growth in the demand for electric power was expected, up to an average rate of almost 6% per year.
In 2016, Mexico generated 20% of its electric power through clean sources, including…
Thermodynamics is the branch of classical physics that studies and describes the thermodynamic transformations induced by heat and work in a thermodynamic system, as a result of processes that involve changes in the state variables of temperature and energy.
Classical thermodynamics is based on the concept of macroscopic system, that is, a portion of physical mass or conceptually separated from the external environment, which is often assumed for convenience that is not disturbed by the exchange of energy with the system. The state of a macroscopic system that is in equilibrium conditions…
The electric generator is an essential element in nuclear power plants. The objective of nucelar power plants is to convert nuclear energy from nuclear fission reactions into electrical energy. The function of the electric generator is to convert the mechanical energy from one coming from a steam turbine into electricity. What is an electric generator?
An electric generator is a machine capable of transforming some type of energy, which can be chemical energy, mechanical or light energy, into electrical energy. Mechanical energy sources include steam turbines, gas…
The use of nuclear energy involves some controversy. The main disadvantages of nuclear energy are widely known, especially those related to environmental pollution problems in the event of nuclear incidents or accidents.
However, the advantages of nuclear energy are important enough to keep this technology active. The main use of this technology based on the manipulation of atoms is the generation of electrical energy, which is considered a form of non-renewable energy.
Despite this, there are other uses of nuclear energy in such important fields as medicine, pest control,…
Nuclear fusion is a nuclear reaction through which two light nuclei of atoms, usually hydrogen and its isotopes (deuterium and tritium), are combined forming a heavier nucleus. This binding is usually accompanied by the emission of particles (in case of deuterium nuclei one neutron is emitted). This nuclear fusion reaction releases or absorbs a lot of energy in the form of gamma rays and kinetic energy of the emitted particles.This large amount of energy transforms matter to a plasma state.
The nuclear fusion reactions can emit or absorb…
Nuclear energy is the energy contained in the nucleus of atoms. Nuclear energy is used in multiple applications (see applications of nuclear energy), but the best known application is the generation of electricity.
The term nuclear energy is often used to refer to the electrical energy generated by nuclear power plants.
One of the ways of harnessing…
The main use of nuclear energy is the production of electrical energy. Nuclear power plants are responsible for generating electricity. Nuclear fission reactions are generated in the nuclear reactors of the nuclear power plants. With these reactions, thermal energy is obtained that will be transformed into mechanical energy and later into electrical energy.
However, there are many other uses in which nuclear energy is used directly or indirectly.
Working with different isotopes of the same element, you can use nuclear technology for other uses in various fields:…
Nuclear reactors can be classified according to different criteria. One of the criteria is the purpose for which they will be used. In this regard we distinguish the types of nuclear reactors used for civilian purposes, for military purposes or for research purposes.
Civil nuclear reactors use nuclear energy to generate power for electricity; military reactors create materials that can be used in nuclear weapons such as the atomic bomb; and research nuclear reactors used to develop weapons or energy production technology, for development purposes, for nuclear physics…
The moderator is a component that is part of nuclear reactors. It is located in the reactor core. The function of the moderator is to reduce the speed of neutrons in nuclear fission reactions.
During fission nuclear reactions, neutrons collide with fissile atoms (uranium and plutonium) present in the nuclear fuel causing fission. With each fission reaction, one or two neutrons are released at high speed.
The objective to maintain a chain fission reaction is that these neutrons hit other fissile atoms but at such a speed it is very difficult. The objective of…
In physics and chemistry, an ion is an atom or molecule that does not have a neutral electrical charge. A cation with a positive electric charge is called a cation, and an ion with a negative electric charge is anion.
The process of winning or losing electrons (with respect to the neutral atom or molecule) is called ionization. Cations and anions are usually represented by the symbol of the corresponding atom and the symbol "+" or "-", respectively. If the number of electrons gained or lost is greater than one, this is also indicated.
The cations and anions are…
At the moment of analyzing the disadvantages of nuclear energy in the first place, it is necessary to consider the different areas in which nuclear energy is used. The main use of nuclear energy is the generation of electricity. Although electricity production is the most controversial nuclear application, nuclear technology is also used in the military, medical or environmental fields, among others.
One of the advantages of nuclear energy is that it reduces the dependence on thermal power plants and, therefore, the consumption of fossil fuels. However,…
Nuclear power in India is currently in a state of growth with strong nuclear development plans. By 2020, India has set a target to supply 14,600 MW to the grid through the use of nuclear energy. Subsequently, in 2050, India wants 25% of electricity is produced by nuclear energy.
India is a founding member of the global nuclear watchdog, the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna.
Because of these restrictions on trade and the lack of indigenous uranium, only India has been developing a nuclear fuel cycle to exploit its reserves of thorium.
Plans to boost nuclear power…
Nuclear fission is the physical-chemical reaction through which the nucleus of an atom is split. In the main interest of the fission reactions is that by this operation a large amount of energy is obtained. Nuclear energy is the energy contained in the nucleus of an atom and the energy that is obtained is thermal energy, energy in the form of heat.
The other form of exploitation is through nuclear fusion reactions. In this case, the process is inverse, fusing two different nuclei forming a single atomic nucleus.
After the fission of the atomic nucleus we obtain…
The main use of nuclear energy is the generation of electrical energy in nuclear power plants. If, however, you are also familiar with other uses in the civil field. One of them is the applications of nuclear energy related to the environment.
Although the popularity of nuclear energy is very low due to the effects produced in nuclear accidents such as Fukushima or Chernobyl, there are applications of nuclear energy to work in favor of the environment.
In these applications we highlight the following:
- Improve the greenhouse effect problem
In physics and chemistry, the atomic theory is a scientific theory of the nature of matter, which states that matter is composed of units called atoms. Atomic theory began as a philosophical concept in ancient Greece and entered the mainstream of the nineteenth century when discoveries in the field of chemistry showed that matter really behaves as if it were an atom.
The word atom originates in the atomic adjective of the ancient Greek, which means "indivisible". As explained in the history of nuclear energy. Nineteenth-century chemists began to use the term in relation to the growing…
The atomic nucleus is the small central part of the atom, with positive electric charge and in which most of the mass of the atom is concentrated. It was discovered by Ernest Ruthenford in 1911. After the discovery of the neutron, in 1932, the atomic nucleus model was quickly developed by Dmitri Ivanenko and Werner Heisenberg.
The main subatomic particles of the nuclei of atoms are protons and neutrons or nucleons (except that of ordinary or own hydrogen, which contains only one proton). The same chemical element is characterized by the number of protons in the nucleus that…
The basis of everything related to nuclear energy lies in the atom, since nuclear technology is based on the use of the internal energy contained in atoms. For this reason, to understand how nuclear reactions occur (nuclear fission or nuclear fusion) it is useful to understand how an atom is structured.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
The atom is composed of a nucleus and one or more electrons linked to the nucleus. The nucleus is made of one or more protons and, typically, a similar number of…
Nuclear power in Spain began in 1964 with the start of the construction of three nuclear power plants: the José Carbrera nuclear power plant, the Santa María de Garoña nuclear power plant and the Vandellós nuclear power plant 1.
The first reactor that was built was that of the José Cabrera nuclear power plant, Zorita. The type of nuclear reactor in the plant is a pressurized water reactor. Two years later the construction of the Santa María de Garoña nuclear power plant begins. In this case, a boiling water nuclear reactor…
A nuclear reactor is a facility capable of initiating, controlling and maintaining nuclear reactions (usually nuclear fission) in chain that occur in the core of this installation.
The composition of the nuclear reactor is formed by the nuclear fuel, the refrigerant, the control elements, the structural materials and, in the case of a nuclear reactor, the nuclear moderator.
To build a nuclear reactor it is necessary to have enough nuclear fuel, which we call critical mass. Having enough critical mass means having enough fissile…
A steam turbine is a machine that exploits the thermal energy of steam under pressure, converting it into useful mechanical energy through a thermodynamic transformation of expansion. Specifically, the steam turbine converts the internal energy of the vapor into kinetic energy of rotation.
The steam turbine, thanks to the highest thermal efficiency and the best power / weight ratio, has completely replaced the steam engine, which was an alternative engine invented by Thomas Newcomen and then significantly improved by James Watt.
From a thermodynamic point of view, the maximum…
Watt is the international standard power unit in SI.
James Watt (1736-1819), the inventor of the steam engine, accepted it as the unit of power in the SI unit system. It is the unit that measures the energy conversion rate (joules) divided by seconds. The watt symbol is represented by the letter W.
1W = 1 J / s
In mechanics the watt is the power developed by a force of a newton applied to a point that moves one meter for a second. That is, if the point on which a force of a newton is applied is displaced at a speed of 1 m / s, the power is equal to 1 watt:
1W = 1N…
In 2016, gross electricity production in Brazil was 579 TWh, including 381 TWh (66%) of hydroelectric power, 56 TWh (10%) of gas, 51 TWh (9%) of biomass and waste, 34 TWh ( 6%) of wind energy and solar energy, 26 TWh (4%) of coal, 16 TWh (3%) of nuclear and 15 TWh (3%) of oil.
The high dependence on hydroelectric energy leads to a certain climate vulnerability that is driving the policy to reduce dependence on it.
Around 40% of Brazil's electricity is produced by the national system of Eletrobrás a. About 20% of electricity comes from public utilities, and the rest comes…
A weapon is an instrument used to attack or defend itself. Within the different types of weapons exist the nuclear weapons. A nuclear weapon is considered to be that weapon that uses nuclear energy.
If they distinguish two types of nuclear weapons depending on the function of nuclear energy:
- Those who use nuclear energy directly to generate a big explosion, as would be the case with the atomic bomb.
- Those who use nuclear energy as a source of energy for propulsion. For example nuclear submarine propulsion, aircraft carrier, etc.
Nuclear weapons are…
We define radioactivity as the spontaneous emission of particles (alpha particles, beta particles, neutrons) or radiations (range, K capture), or both at the same time, coming from the disintegration of certain nuclides that form them, due to an arrangement in its internal structure.
Radioactive decay occurs in unstable atomic nuclei, that is, those that do not have enough binding energy to keep the nucleus together due to an excess of protons or neutrons.
Radioactivity can be natural or artificial. In natural radioactivity, the substance already has it in the natural state. In…
A molecule is a set of chemically bonded atoms. The electric charge of the molecules is neutral.
There is a definition of an older molecule that is less general and less precise: "A molecule is the smallest part of a substance that can have an independent and stable existence while preserving its chemical properties and certain physicochemical properties." By this definition there could be molecules with a single atom. Types of molecules
Molecules can be formed in two different ways:
- Discrete molecules: molecules may consist of a well-defined number of atoms…
One of the main problems in the use of nuclear energy is the management of nuclear waste as it is very dangerous and difficult to eliminate. What is done with nuclear waste?
Nuclear waste is one of the main problems related to nuclear energy. If these wastes are not treated properly, they are highly hazardous to the population and the environment.
Radioactive waste can be classified according to its physical and chemical characteristics and by its activity.
Classifying them by their activity we have:
- High-level nuclear waste, composed of elements of…
The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident is a series of incidents, including four separate explosions, that took place at the Naraha nuclear power plant in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, following the Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami on March 11. 2011. The Fukushima nuclear facility was a nuclear power plant to convert nuclear energy into electrical energy.
The Fukushima nuclear disaster occurred on March 11, 2011. It is the most serious nuclear accident in history after the Chernobyl nuclear accident.
The accident was caused by an 8.9-degree earthquake near the northwest coast of…
The nuclear moratorium is the temporary suspension of the construction and start-up of nuclear power plants.
In 1983 in Spain a National Energy Plan was drafted in which a nuclear moratorium would be decreed in the country. The nuclear moratorium involved the blocking of 5 nuclear power plant projects out of the 7 that had been approved. Technically it was a brake on the dynamics of the development of nuclear energy in the country. What reasons caused the nuclear motive?
There are several reasons that motivated the creation of the nuclear moratorium:
Industry is one of the fields in which nuclear energy is used. The use of nuclear energy in modern industry in developed countries is very important for the improvement of industrial processes, for measurements and automation, and for quality control.
The use of nuclear radiation is applied in a wide range of activities. These activities can be quality control of raw materials of industrial processes (cement, thermal power plants, oil refineries, etc.), or quality control of products manufactured in series. In the case of series production, it is used as a prerequisite…
A radioactive nuclide, radionuclide or radionuclide is an unstable nuclide and therefore degenerates emitting ionizing radiation. Although some physicists sometimes use the word radioisotope vulgarly to designate it, it should be noted that the strict or formal language of the physics and technology of nuclear energy is wrong, since a nuclide and an isotope are not the same.
When a radionuclide emits radioactivity it reaches a more stable state, which requires less energy than before and, in general, transforms into another different…
After years of neglect of the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl nuclear plant, it may be given a new use as the Ukrainian authorities are considering turning it into a huge solar power plant.
The Chernobyl nuclear power plant suffered the worst nuclear accident in history when in 1985 exploded the core of its reactor No. 4. The severity of the accident along with mismanagement after the accident, generated a lot of contaminated area and consequently, abandoned.
Now, 30 years later, it is considering giving a new utility: it is turn the area into a plant of photovoltaic solar energy,…
Tritium is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen whose nucleus is a proton and two neutrons. The most important application of tritium is use as nuclear fuel for energy production by nuclear fusion.
It is usually designated by the symbol T, although you should symbolize systematically as 3H. It was discovered on 1934 by Rutherford, Oliphant and Harteck in the study of deuteron bombardment of deuterium.
Tritium in the atmosphere occurs at the rate of one atom of hydrogen per 1017, and is continuously formed in the upper atmosphere nuclear reactions induced…
Plutonium is a chemical element, usually of artificial origin, that is used as a nuclear fuel in the manufacture of nuclear weapons.
The symbol of this chemical element is Pu and its atomic number is 94. It is an element that belongs to the series of actinide elements. Plutonium has 16 isotopes, all of them radioactive. The element is a silver metal and has 5 different crystalline structures.
Chemically plutonium is a very active material. It can form compounds with all non-metallic elements, except noble gases. The metal dissolves in acids and reacts with…
One of the uses of nuclear energy is the propulsion of vehicles. This application is used especially in the military field.
The Nautilus is the first nuclear submarine in the world. It was built in 1954, in Groton, Connecticut, on the east coast of the United States. Thanks to the use of nuclear energy, all the technological records of submarines have been surpassed to date. It had a higher speed and did not need to climb so often to the surface. It was the first submarine to reach the North Pole, in 1958. In 1980 it became a Museum.
So far, the submarines…
Electricity consumption in Argentina has grown strongly since 1990. Per capita consumption was just over 2000 kWh / year in 2002 and increased to around 3000 kWh / year in 2015. Gross electricity production in 2016 was 147 TWh , with 75 TWh (51%) of natural gas, 38 TWh (26%) of hydropower, 21 TWh (14%) of oil, 3 TWh (2%) of coal, 8 TWh (5% *) of nuclear energy and 10 TWh of net import. The total electric power produced by fossil fuels is 99TWh.
In Argentina, approximately 10% of electricity comes from 3 operational nuclear reactors: the Embalse nuclear power plant, a CANDU reactor,…
The nuclear accident in Chernobyl (1986) is by far the most serious nuclear accident in the history of nuclear energy. It was classified as level 7 (severe nuclear accident) of the INES scale, the highest value. Although it is the same level at the Fukushima nuclear accident was classified, the consequences of the Chernobyl accident were still far worse.
The Chernobyl nuclear power plant is located near the town of Prypyat, 18km from the city of Chernobyl.
At the time of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident provided 4 reactors in operation and two more were under construction.…
A beta particle (β) is an electron that shoots out of a radioactive event.
By the law of Fajans, if an atom emits a beta particle, its electric charge increases by a positive unit and the atomic mass number does not change. This is because the mass or mass number only represents the number of protons and neutrons, which in this case the total number is not affected, since a neutron "loses" an electron, but becomes a proton, ie , a neutron becomes a proton and therefore the total number of atomic mass (protons plus neutrons) does not vary.
The interaction of beta particles…
The pressurized water nuclear reactor is the type of nuclear reactor more used worldwide in the nuclear power plants of generation of electricity. At present, there are more than 230 nuclear reactors in the world made with the pressurized water system. Also known by its abbreviations PW. Its main feature is the use of water under high pressure in the primary circuit to prevent it from boiling.
Within the naval engineering the pressurized water nuclear reactor (PWR) is widely used. In fact, this model was originally designed to be used on a nuclear submarine.
Nuclear fuel is the material used for the generation of nuclear energy. It is a material that can be fissured or fused depending on whether its use is nuclear fission or nuclear fusion.
We refer to nuclear fuel both to the material (uranium, plutonium ...) and to the whole made with said nuclear material (fuel rods, nuclear material compositions and the moderator or any other combination.
The most known nuclear fuel is uranium because it is the most commonly used in nuclear fission reactors. Currently all nuclear reactors in production for the generation of electric power are…
The operation of an atomic bomb is similar to the operation of a nuclear reactor, wherein the mass of fuel is well above the critical mass. Initially, the fuel is fragmented, and each of the pieces, enough from the others, so it untreated the critical size; Explosion occurs at closer fragments including sharply.
To increase the performance and efficiency of an atomic bomb to be used practically pure fuels; those used so far have been uranium-235 and plutonium-239. Uranium-235 is difficult and expensive to obtain, because it is not possible to chemically separate it from natural uranium…
The experimental fusion reactor ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) is a large-scale scientific experiment designed to test the feasibility of fusion as an energy source. Currently the ITER fusion reactor is under construction in the south of France, in Cadarache.
At the industry level, nuclear fusion does not exist yet. Since the 50s under investigation on the use of the energy generated in the nuclear fusion of light atoms into heavier. The development of nuclear fusion is considered very important because of the advantage offered by the large amount of energy released…
In nuclear energy, we refer to nuclear accident to those incidents that emit a certain level of radiation, which could harm public health.
Nuclear accidents are classified as nuclear accidents and incidents depending on the severity´s level. In this classification nuclear accidents and radioactive accidents are included. To understand the difference between these two types of accidents, a nuclear accident could be the failure of a reactor of a nuclear power plant and a radiation accident could be when pouring a radiation source to a river.
Despite the known nuclear…
The nuclear power plant Lemóniz was a product of the nuclear policy of the end of the Franco dictatorship. It was built on the creek in the town of Basordas Lemóniz, province of Vizcaya (Basque Country). 15 km from Bilbao. But never put into operation because of the nuclear moratorium adopted by the socialist government in 1984.
The nuclear plant was part of…
The Arkansas Nuclear One nuclear power plant (ANO) is located on Lake Dardanelle near Russellville, in the state of Arkansas, in the United States. It is the only nuclear power plant in the state of Arkansas.
The owner and operator of the nuclear plant is Entergy Nuclear.
The Arkansas nuclear power plant is composed of two pressurized water nuclear reactors.
- Unit 1. The reactor of unit 1 has a power generation capacity of 846 MW. It was connected to the electricity grid on May 21, 1974. It is currently licensed to operate until May 20, 2034. Its nuclear reactor was supplied…