Isotopes are atoms whose nuclei have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons. Not all atoms of the same element are identical and each of these varieties corresponds to a different isotope.
Each isotope of the same element have the same atomic number (Z) but each has a different mass number (A). The atomic number is the number of protons in the atomic nucleus of the atom. The mass number is the sum of neutrons and protons of the core. This means that different isotopes of the same atom differ from each other only by the number of neutrons.
The items that can…
Plutonium is a chemical element, usually of artificial origin, that is used as a nuclear fuel in the manufacture of nuclear weapons.
The symbol of this chemical element is Pu and its atomic number is 94. It is an element that belongs to the series of actinide elements. Plutonium has 16 isotopes, all of them radioactive. The element is a silver metal and has 5 different crystalline structures.
Chemically plutonium is a very active material. It can form compounds with all non-metallic elements, except noble gases. The metal dissolves in acids and reacts with…
Enriched uranium is uranium that has gone through a technological process to increase the proportion of the uranium-235 isotope. As a result, natural uranium is divided into enriched uranium and depleted uranium.
Natural uranium contains three isotopes of uranium: uranium-238 (99.2745%), uranium-235 (0.72%) and uranium-234 (0.0055%). The isotope uranium-238 is a relatively stable isotope, incapable of an independent nuclear chain reaction, unlike the rare uranium-235. Currently, uranium-235 is the main fissile material in the chain reactions of nuclear…
The atom is a structure in which matter is organized in the physical world or in nature. The atoms form the molecules, while the atoms in turn are formed by subatomic constituents such as protons (with positive charge), neutrons (without charge) and electrons. (with negative charge).
In a graphical way, what is an atom? Let's imagine that we have a piece of iron. We split it. We still have two pieces of iron but smaller ones. We will start them again, again ... Each time we will have more smaller pieces until a moment will come, in which if we go back to…
The main use of nuclear energy is the generation of electrical energy in nuclear power plants. If, however, you are also familiar with other uses in the civil field. One of them is the applications of nuclear energy related to the environment.
Although the popularity of nuclear energy is very low due to the effects produced in nuclear accidents such as Fukushima or Chernobyl, there are applications of nuclear energy to work in favor of the environment.
In these applications we highlight the following:
- Improve the greenhouse effect problem
Nuclear fusion is a nuclear reaction through which two light nuclei of atoms, usually hydrogen and its isotopes (deuterium and tritium), are combined forming a heavier nucleus. This binding is usually accompanied by the emission of particles (in case of deuterium nuclei one neutron is emitted). This nuclear fusion reaction releases or absorbs a lot of energy in the form of gamma rays and kinetic energy of the emitted particles.This large amount of energy transforms matter to a plasma state.
The nuclear fusion reactions can emit or absorb…
We define radioactivity as the spontaneous emission of particles (alpha particles, beta particles, neutrons) or radiations (range, K capture), or both at the same time, coming from the disintegration of certain nuclides that form them, due to an arrangement in its internal structure.
Radioactive decay occurs in unstable atomic nuclei, that is, those that do not have enough binding energy to keep the nucleus together due to an excess of protons or neutrons.
Radioactivity can be natural or artificial. In natural radioactivity, the substance already has it in the natural state. In…
In nuclear medicine, a given radionuclide is administered to the patient, with the aim of investigating a specific physiological phenomenon by means of a special detector, usually a gamma camera, located outside the body. The injected radionuclide is selectively deposited in certain organs (thyroid, kidney, etc.). The size, shape and functioning of these organs can be seen from the gamma camera. Most of these procedures are diagnostic, although in some cases radionuclides are administered for therapeutic purposes.
Industry is one of the fields in which nuclear energy is used. The use of nuclear energy in modern industry in developed countries is very important for the improvement of industrial processes, for measurements and automation, and for quality control.
The use of nuclear radiation is applied in a wide range of activities. These activities can be quality control of raw materials of industrial processes (cement, thermal power plants, oil refineries, etc.), or quality control of products manufactured in series. In the case of series production, it is used as a prerequisite…
Definition of proton
A proton is a subatomic particle with positive electric charge that is inside the atomic nucleus of atoms. The number of protons in the atomic nucleus determines the atomic number of an element, as indicated in the periodic table of the elements.
The proton has charge +1 (or, alternatively, 1.602 x 10 -19 coulombs), exactly the opposite of the charge -1 that contains the electron. In mass, however, there is no competition - the mass of the proton is approximately 1,836 times greater than that of an electron.
Nuclear fission is the physical-chemical reaction through which the nucleus of an atom is split. In the main interest of the fission reactions is that by this operation a large amount of energy is obtained. Nuclear energy is the energy contained in the nucleus of an atom and the energy that is obtained is thermal energy, energy in the form of heat.
The other form of exploitation is through nuclear fusion reactions. In this case, the process is inverse, fusing two different nuclei forming a single atomic nucleus.
After the fission of the atomic nucleus we obtain…
The Embalse nuclear power plant is a central power generation, located near the city of Embalse, province of Cordoba in Argentina.
In addition to power generation has other applications in nuclear medicine because thanks to their recharge nuclear fuel during operation, is also used to generate isotopes for medical applications, such as cobalt 60
From the point of view of the capacity of power generation, nuclear power plant reservoir has a capacity of 648 MWe gross power.
The operator is Nucleoeléctrica Argentina S.A. since 1994. Chronology of the construction…
Atomic energy comes from the atom, it is the energy that holds together neutrons and protons of the nuclei of atoms. It is also known how nuclear energy, which comes from the nucleus. The name nuclear energy is used because most of the energy of an atom resides in its nucleus.
Two parts of the atom, the nucleus and the crust are differentiated. In the cortex, an indeterminate number of electrons orbit around the nucleus. The nucleus is composed of an indeterminate number of neutrons and protons. The amount of protons in the nucleus will determine the element that the atom is treated,…
The nuclear fuel is the material that has been adapted for use in nuclear power generation.
When it comes to nuclear fuel we can be talking about the same item or set that is made ready it can be used for containing the material itself, but also other elements.
The most widely used process involving the nuclear fission fuel.
There are different types of nuclear fuel, but the most common fuel is consisting of fissile elements such as uranium, generating chain reactions in nuclear reactors. The most common isotope in the fission is uranium-235.
A neutron is a subatomic particle that is part of the atom (along with the proton and the electron). Neutrons and protons form the atomic nucleus. Neutrons have no net electric charge, unlike the proton that has a positive electric charge.
The difference in the number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom does not imply the variation of the nature of the atom itself, but it does determine the isotope to which it is a part.
In nuclear energy the concept "uranium enrichment" refers to the alteration of the number of neutrons in the atomic nucleus in order to obtain another…