Isotopes are atoms whose nuclei have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons. Not all atoms of the same element are identical and each of these varieties corresponds to a different isotope.
Each isotope of the same element have the same atomic number (Z) but each has a different mass number (A). The atomic number is the number of protons in the atomic nucleus of the atom. The mass number is the sum of neutrons and protons of the core. This means that different isotopes of the same atom differ from each other only by the number of neutrons.
The items that can…
Plutonium is a chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94 which belongs to the actinide series of elements. Plutonium has 16 isotopes, all radioactive. The element is a silvery metal and has 5 different crystal structures.
Chemically plutonium is a very active material. You can form compounds with all nonmetals except the noble gases. The metal dissolves in acidic and reacts with water, but only moderately in comparison with the acid.
While you can find traces in nature, all isotopes of plutonium are of artificial origin. Radioactivity plutonium
Populritat Although nuclear energy is very low there are applications of nuclear energy for works for the environment. What is the relationship between nuclear energy and the environment?
To reduce pollution in the environment, we need to know where and how much to find these pollutants, the causes of contaminacióny the right solution to prevent it from spreading.
The main source of pollution is found in human activities contributing largely to the increase in pollutants, growth poblacióny industrial technological developments.
At present, the biggest…
Uranium is the most commonly used nuclear fuel in nuclear fission reactions. It is a natural element that can be found in nature. However, in order to be able to use uranium in a nuclear reactor it must undergo some treatment.
To know the peculiarities that make uranium so different from the other substances we must first consider some basic nuclear physics. Basic physical considerations of uranium
An atom of a nucleus and electrons surrounding this nucleus. In turn, a nucleus consists of protons and neutrons. A proton has a positive charge. A neutron has no electric charge…
Nuclear medicine is defined as the branch of medicine that uses radioactive isotopes, nuclear radiation, electromagnetic variations of the components of the atomic nucleus and related biophysical techniques for the prevention, diagnosis, therapy and medical research.
Clinical applications of radiopharmaceuticals cover virtually all medical specialties.
Nuclear medicine is closely related to several basic and applied sciences such as physics, chemistry, electronics, cybernetics and pharmacy, and other branches of medicine and physiology, pathophysiology, radiology and other diagnostic…
The main use of nuclear energy is the production of electric energy. Nuclear power plants are responsible for generating electricity. Nuclear fission reactors are generated in the nuclear reactors of the nuclear power plants. With these reactions thermal energy is obtained which will be transformed into mechanical energy and later into electrical energy.
However, there are many other applications where nuclear technology is used directly or indirectly.
Working with different isotopes of the same element, nuclear technology can be used for other applications in various fields:…
Nuclear fusion is a nuclear reaction through which two light nuclei of atoms, usually hydrogen and its isotopes (deuterium and tritium), are combined forming a heavier nucleus. This binding is usually accompanied by the emission of particles (in case of deuterium nuclei one neutron is emitted). This nuclear fusion reaction releases or absorbs a lot of energy in the form of gamma rays and kinetic energy of the emitted particles.This large amount of energy transforms matter to a plasma state.
The nuclear fusion reactions can emit or absorb…
A proton is a subatomic particle with a positive electric charge that lies within the atomic nucleus of atoms. The number of protons in the atomic nucleus is that which determines the atomic number of an element, as indicated in the periodic table of the elements.
The proton has +1 charge (or, alternatively, 1,602 x 10-19 coulombs), exactly the opposite of the charge -1 containing the electron. In mass, however, there is no competition because the mass of the proton is approximately 1,836 times greater than that of an electron.
The proton is…
In nuclear medicine, a particular radionuclide is administered to the patient, in order to investigate a specific physiological phenomenon by a special detector, generally a gamma camera, outside the body. The injected radionuclide is selectively deposited in certain organs (thyroid, kidney, etc.) can be seen from the gamma camera the size, shape and function of these bodies. Most of these procedures are diagnostic, although some radionuclides are administered for therapeutic purposes.
Useful radionuclides in nuclear medicine are as follows:
- Diagnosis "in life" emitting:…