Nuclear energy began to develop during the first decade of 1940. Initially, the research was aimed at the development and production of the atomic bomb. Subsequently, research began on other applications of nuclear energy; the investigation focused on the peaceful use of nuclear energy.
Currently, there are 30 countries in the world that have nuclear power plants for the generation of electricity. In any case, the number of countries that take advantage of nuclear energy is much greater since countries such as Denmark and Italy, which do not have any nuclear facilities, obtain about…
To explain the history of nuclear energy we could distinguish three major stages:
- Physical and chemical scientific studies of the elements.
- The development of the nuclear bomb during World War II.
- Use of nuclear energy in the civil field.
Scientific studies cover this whole period since the first Greek philosophers began to define atoms, until the development of the first nuclear bomb. In this process, different scientists discover the presence of electrons, neutrons and protons and properties that make one atom more radioactive than another.…
The nuclear accident in Chernobyl (1986) is by far the most serious nuclear accident in the history of nuclear energy. It was classified as level 7 (severe nuclear accident) of the INES scale, the highest value. Although it is the same level at the Fukushima nuclear accident was classified, the consequences of the Chernobyl accident were still far worse.
The Chernobyl nuclear power plant is located near the town of Prypyat, 18km from the city of Chernobyl.
At the time of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident provided 4 reactors in operation and two more were under construction.…
On March 11, 2011 in Fukushima occurred one of the worst nuclear accidents in history after the Chernobyl nuclear accident.
A 8.9 magnitude earthquake off the northwest coast of Japan and a subsequent tsunami severely affected Dahiichi Fukushima nuclear plant on the northeast coast of Japan.
At the time of the nuclear accident at the Fukushima reactors had 6. Reactors 1, 2 and 3 were operating while nuclear reactors 4, 5 and 6 were unemployed for maintenance.
After the earthquake Fukushima reactors that were still running is automatically stopped. To cool the reactors,…
In nuclear energy, we refer to nuclear accident to those incidents that emit a certain level of radiation, which could harm public health.
Nuclear accidents are classified as nuclear accidents and incidents depending on the severity´s level. In this classification nuclear accidents and radioactive accidents are included. To understand the difference between these two types of accidents, a nuclear accident could be the failure of a reactor of a nuclear power plant and a radiation accident could be when pouring a radiation source to a river.
Despite the known nuclear…
Nuclear fusion is a nuclear reaction through which two light nuclei of atoms, usually hydrogen and its isotopes (deuterium and tritium), are combined forming a heavier nucleus. This binding is usually accompanied by the emission of particles (in case of deuterium nuclei one neutron is emitted). This nuclear fusion reaction releases or absorbs a lot of energy in the form of gamma rays and kinetic energy of the emitted particles.This large amount of energy transforms matter to a plasma state.
The nuclear fusion reactions can emit or absorb…
A nuclear reactor is an installation capable of initiating, controlling and maintaining nuclear reactions (usually nuclear fission) chain that occur in the core of this facility.
The composition of the nuclear reactor is formed by the nuclear fuel, coolant, control elements, structural materials and, in the case in question a thermal nuclear reactor, the moderator.
Nuclear reactors can be classified as thermal reactors and fast reactors.
Thermal reactors are those which function by delaying (moderating) the fastest neutrons or increasing the proportion of fissile atoms.…
In this section we analyze the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear power. Nevertheless, most organizations related to nuclear energy are already positioned for or against the use of nuclear power. On this site we try to make an objective analysis about this question, giving all the relevant information and offering a space for different conclusions. Advantages of nuclear power
The generation of electricity through nuclear energy reduces the amount of energy generated from fossil fuels (coal and oil). Less use of fossil fuels means lowering…
The nuclear moratorium supposed blocking 5 projects of nuclear power plants that had approved the 7 (and some insiders) in Spain. The National Energy Plans and Nuclear Moratorium
In 1983 he drafted a National Energy Plan in qual nuclear energy in Spain was hit hard.
To bring national electricity production to energy demand and adjust prices of the Congreos Diputoado in June 1984 approved the 1983 National Energy Plan (PEN-83).
The nuclear stop was the main novelty of the PEN-83 that was slowing building program of nuclear power.
What reasons provoaron the…
Nuclear power in India is currently in a state of growth with strong nuclear development plans. By 2020, India has set a target to supply 14,600 MW to the grid through the use of nuclear energy. Subsequently, in 2050, India wants 25% of electricity is produced by nuclear energy.
India is a founding member of the global nuclear watchdog, the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna.
Because of these restrictions on trade and the lack of indigenous uranium, only India has been developing a nuclear fuel cycle to exploit its reserves of thorium.
Plans to boost nuclear power…
One of the main problems in the use of nuclear energy is the management of nuclear waste as it is very dangerous and difficult to eliminate. What is done with nuclear waste?
Nuclear waste is one of the main problems related to nuclear energy. If these wastes are not treated properly, they are highly hazardous to the population and the environment.
Radioactive waste can be classified according to its physical and chemical characteristics and by its activity.
Classifying them by their activity we have:
- High-level nuclear waste, composed of elements of…
A weapon is an instrument used to attack or defend itself. Within the different types of weapons exist the nuclear weapons. A nuclear weapon is considered to be that weapon that uses nuclear energy.
If they distinguish two types of nuclear weapons depending on the function of nuclear energy:
- Those who use nuclear energy directly to generate a big explosion, as would be the case with the atomic bomb.
- Those who use nuclear energy as a source of energy for propulsion. For example nuclear submarine propulsion, aircraft carrier, etc.
Nuclear weapons are…
In 2016, gross electricity production in Brazil was 579 TWh, including 381 TWh (66%) of hydroelectric power, 56 TWh (10%) of gas, 51 TWh (9%) of biomass and waste, 34 TWh ( 6%) of wind energy and solar energy, 26 TWh (4%) of coal, 16 TWh (3%) of nuclear and 15 TWh (3%) of oil.
The high dependence on hydroelectric energy leads to a certain climate vulnerability that is driving the policy to reduce dependence on it.
Around 40% of Brazil's electricity is produced by the national system of Eletrobrás a. About 20% of electricity comes from public utilities, and the rest comes…
We distinguish two types of nuclear reactors
- Nuclear research reactors. This type of reactors used neutrons generated during nuclear fission reactions to produce radioisotopes that are going to be used in other applications of nuclear energy or materials for studies.
- Nuclear power reactors. These reactors are based on the use of the thermal energy generated in the fission reactions. The main and most known application of this type of reactor is to generate electricity in nuclear power plants. However, also they are used for desalination…
A nuclear power plant is a facility for obtaining electrical energy using nuclear energy.
Its operation is similar to that of a thermal power plant or that of a solar thermal plant: from a source of energy thermodynamics is used to obtain heat, with the heat to get steam and with the steam to drive a turbine that will generate electricity.
The difference between the different types of electrical installations is in the energy source: a nuclear power plant uses the heat released in the nuclear fission reactions of certain atoms, in a thermal power station the heat source (thermal…
Nuclear energy is the energy contained in the nucleus of atoms. Nuclear energy is used in multiple applications (see applications of nuclear energy), but the best known application is the generation of electricity.
The term nuclear energy is often used to refer to the electrical energy generated by nuclear power plants.
One of the ways of harnessing…
Nuclear energy is the energy in the nucleus of an atom. Atoms are the smallest particles that can break a material. At the core of each atom there are two types of particles (neutrons and protons) that are held together. Nuclear energy is the energy that holds neutrons and protons.
Nuclear energy can be used to produce electricity. This energy can be obtained in two ways: nuclear fusion and nuclear fission. In nuclear fusion, energy is released when atoms are combined or fused together to form a larger atom. The sun produces energy like this. In nuclear fission, atoms are split into…
Nowadays, the main use given to nuclear energy is the generation of electric power. Nuclear power plants are responsible of doing this process. Almost all nuclear power plants in production are using nuclear fission since the nuclear fusion, despite being under development, is currently unfeasible.
The operation of a nuclear power plant is identical to the operation of a thermoelectric power plant operating with coal, oil or gas, except in the way of providing heat to the water for converting this one into steam. In nuclear reactors this process of producing heat is made by the fission…
The Chalk River Laboratories Chalk River Labs and formerly called Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories is a facility located near Chalk River, Ontario (Canada) population engaged in the research of nuclear reactions.
The installation was born in 1942 as a result of the collaboration between the British and Canadian nuclear research. In 1944 Chalk River Laboratories were inaugurated in September 1945 and the installation put into operation the first nuclear reactor outside the United States.
The NRX is a research nuclear reactor moderated by heavy water, cooled by…
Atomic energy comes from the atom, it is the energy that holds together neutrons and protons of the nuclei of atoms. It is also known how nuclear energy, which comes from the nucleus. The name nuclear energy is used because most of the energy of an atom resides in its nucleus.
Two parts of the atom, the nucleus and the crust are differentiated. In the cortex, an indeterminate number of electrons orbit around the nucleus. The nucleus is composed of an indeterminate number of neutrons and protons. The amount of protons in the nucleus will determine the element that the atom is treated,…
Nuclear fuel is the material used for the generation of nuclear energy. It is a material that can be fissured or fused depending on whether its use is nuclear fission or nuclear fusion.
We refer to nuclear fuel both to the material (uranium, plutonium ...) and to the whole made with said nuclear material (fuel rods, nuclear material compositions and the moderator or any other combination.
The most known nuclear fuel is uranium because it is the most commonly used in nuclear fission reactors. Currently all nuclear reactors in production for the generation of electric power are…
The pressurized water nuclear reactor is the type of nuclear reactor more used worldwide in the nuclear power plants of generation of electricity. At present, there are more than 230 nuclear reactors in the world made with the pressurized water system. Also known by its abbreviations PW. Its main feature is the use of water under high pressure in the primary circuit to prevent it from boiling.
Within the naval engineering the pressurized water nuclear reactor (PWR) is widely used. In fact, this model was originally designed to be used on a nuclear submarine.
We can obtain energy manipulating one or several nuclei of atoms throught two different methods: attaching the cores from different atoms (the nuclear fusion) or splitting a given atom nuclei (the nuclear fission).
In nuclear energy, nuclear fission is the action through which the nucleus of an atom is divided. The core forms different fragments with a mass equivalent to half of the original mass and two or three neutrons.
The total mass of the fragments is smaller than the original…
The Vandellós I nuclear power plant is a graphite-gas nuclear power plant that began operating in 1972. It was part of the group of first generation nuclear power plants in Spain, formed by the Zorita nuclear power plant, Santa Mª de Garoña and the Vandellós I nuclear power plant. It was owned by the Spanish-French company HIFRENSA (Hispano-Francesa de Electricidad).
The nuclear power plant had 480 megawatts (MW) of power. So far the Spanish nuclear power plants were refrigerated and moderated by water. The Vandellós plant, on the other hand, was cooled by gas and its nuclear reaction…
The Nautilus is the first nuclear submarine in the world. It was built in 1954, in Groton, Connecticut, on the east coast of the US. Thanks to the use of nuclear energy have managed to overcome all records of submarine technology to date. Available higher speed and not so often needed up to the surface. It was the first submarine to reach the North Pole in 1958. In 1980 became a Museum. The nuclear submarine Nautilus, a technological novelty
The main use of nuclear energy is the production of electric energy. Nuclear power plants are responsible for generating electricity. Nuclear fission reactors are generated in the nuclear reactors of the nuclear power plants. With these reactions thermal energy is obtained which will be transformed into mechanical energy and later into electrical energy.
However, there are many other applications where nuclear technology is used directly or indirectly.
Working with different isotopes of the same element, nuclear technology can be used for other applications in various fields:…
The Davis-Besse nuclear power plant is located on the shore of Lake Erie near Oak Harbor, in the state of Ohio in the United States. The nuclear facility has a single nuclear reactor.
This is the 57th commercial power reactor built in the United States although it was the 50th to get going. Construction of the plant began on 1 September 1970.
The nuclear reactor is pressurized water type with a power output of 873 MWe power. Nuclear Incidents in the Davis Besse nuclear power plant
Of the 5 nuclear incidents in the United States, two of them have occurred in the nuclear…
In 1974 the French government decided to rapidly expand production capacity of nuclear power in France just after the first oil crisis. This Decision n was made in the context of a France with substantial competition in engineering, but few indigenous energy resources. Nuclear power, with the cost of fuel is a relatively small the total cost, in this sense, getting a reduction in imports and greater energy security could.
As a result of the decision of 1974, France currently has a high level of energy independence and almost the lowest cost electricity in Europe. It also has a level…
The Laguna Verde nuclear power plant is a nuclear power generation plant located in the Punta Limón locality of Alto Lucero municipality of Gutiérrez Barrios, in the State of Veracruz, Mexico. It is the only nuclear power plant in Mexico.
Currently the plant is owned by the Federal Electricity Commission.
The Mexican nuclear power plant has 2 nuclear reactors of 1634 MW each, so the total installed capacity in the plant is 1,634 MW.
The Laguna Verde nuclear power plant is certified by Mexico's nuclear regulatory agency, the National Commission on Nuclear Safety…
The Embalse nuclear power plant is a central power generation, located near the city of Embalse, province of Cordoba in Argentina.
In addition to power generation has other applications in nuclear medicine because thanks to their recharge nuclear fuel during operation, is also used to generate isotopes for medical applications, such as cobalt 60
From the point of view of the capacity of power generation, nuclear power plant reservoir has a capacity of 648 MWe gross power.
The operator is Nucleoeléctrica Argentina S.A. since 1994. Chronology of the construction…
The Callaway nuclear power plant is a nuclear power facility for the generation of electricity. This nuclear power plant operates in the central part of the United States. The nuclear facility is located in Calloway County, Missouri.
The Callaway nuclear power plant was launched in December 1984. The plant's only nuclear reactor has a capacity of 1,236 megawatts (MW). The nuclear reactor is a nuclear PWR pressurized water reactor manufactured by Westinghouse. The current reactor provides 19% of Missouri's electricity needs.
The power plant is operated by Amerenue. The plant was…
The Bugey nuclear power plant is a facility generating electricity consists of 5 nuclear reactors. 4 delos plant reactors are still in operation. The reactor of Unit 1 was closed on 27 May 1994 and currently is in the process of dismantling.
The nuclear plant is located in Bugey, France in Saint-Vulbas community, 65 km from the border of Switzerland. The plant was built…
Plutonium is a chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94 which belongs to the actinide series of elements. Plutonium has 16 isotopes, all radioactive. The element is a silvery metal and has 5 different crystal structures.
Chemically plutonium is a very active material. You can form compounds with all nonmetals except the noble gases. The metal dissolves in acidic and reacts with water, but only moderately in comparison with the acid.
While you can find traces in nature, all isotopes of plutonium are of artificial origin. Radioactivity plutonium
Nuclear power in Chile appears for the first time in 1964 with the approach of the project that made Dr. Cruz-Coke. Chilean Commission of Nuclear Energy
The most important organization is the CCHEN Chile (Chilean Commission of Nuclear Energy) which is responsible for everything that is related to the peaceful use of nuclear energy . (Since nuclear energy was initially used for military purposes).
The CCHEN, has two nuclear reactors for research,…
The Beaver Valley nuclear power plant is a nuclear power plant that produces electricity on the Ohio River in the city of Shippingport, in the county of Beaver, in the western corner of Pennsylvania, USA. The last two nuclear reactors of the nuclear power plant were approved for commissioning in 1975 and 1986, while the previous 1957 Atomic Energy Station for Vessels was permanently closed in 1982. The original work was the first power plant nuclear in the United States.
The two facilities are located in the same place on the Ohio River. The maximum installed power in the current plant…
Mayak is one of the highest points of the planet with radioactive contamination. It is also conce as Mayak Production Association (Russian: Маяк производственное объединение ). These are the names by which a complex known nuclear facilities between the cities of Kaslo and Kyshtym in laprovincia Chelyabinsk, Russia.
The Mayak nuclear accident is little known because the Soviet authorities tried to hide for 30 years nuclear leaks have been occurring. History of Mayak nuclear plant
The construction and launch of the atomic bomb on the Japanese…
The Arkansas Nuclear One nuclear power plant (ANO) is located on Lake Dardanelle near Russellville, in the state of Arkansas, in the United States. It is the only nuclear power plant in the state of Arkansas.
The owner and operator of the nuclear plant is Entergy Nuclear.
The Arkansas nuclear power plant is composed of two pressurized water nuclear reactors.
- Unit 1. The reactor of unit 1 has a power generation capacity of 846 MW. It was connected to the electricity grid on May 21, 1974. It is currently licensed to operate until May 20, 2034. Its nuclear reactor was supplied…
The Cattenom Nuclear Power Plant is a nuclear power plant located in France. It is currently operated by Electricité de France (EDF). Geographically it is located in Lorraine, in the town of Cattenom, on the Moselle banks between Thionville and Trier. The cities of Luxembourg, Arlon, and Metz are very close to the nuclear power plant.
Luxembourg, Saarland and Belgium demanded closure of the plant. In spite of this, there is a project under way to extend its useful life until 2025. Characteristics of the Cattenom nuclear power plant
The Cattenom nuclear plant is a nuclear…
The term nuclear waste management as a set of activities that lead to reuse your desaparicióno your neutralizacióny evacuacióna right places, ensuring long-term safety.
The storage of nuclear waste in low and intermediate level is based on the filing of natural and artificial barriers between these nuclear waste and the environment, so they are perfectly isolated long enough until their radioactivity decay to harmless levels. To store the radioactive waste of low and medium activity generated in Spain, has ENRESA Storage Center The Cabril in the province of Cordoba,…
The Vandellós II nuclear power plant is a power plant. The facility is located on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea, in the municipality of Vandellós, in the province of Tarragona. The national participation in the construction and supply of equipment represented more than 89% of the total, which represented the highest percentage achieved in Spain for this type of project.
The plant as a whole, which has a nuclear pressurized water reactor, consists of several main buildings: containment building, fuel, auxiliary and turbine building. In addition, it is equipped with…
The nuclear fuel is the material that has been adapted for use in nuclear power generation.
When it comes to nuclear fuel we can be talking about the same item or set that is made ready it can be used for containing the material itself, but also other elements.
The most widely used process involving the nuclear fission fuel.
There are different types of nuclear fuel, but the most common fuel is consisting of fissile elements such as uranium, generating chain reactions in nuclear reactors. The most common isotope in the fission is uranium-235.
A boiling water reactor or BWR is a type of nuclear reactor. It is the second type of reactor most used in nuclear power plants in the world. Approximately 22% of the nuclear reactors installed in the different nuclear power plants use the boiling water reactor.
The main function of this type of reactors is their installation in power plants of power for the generation of electricity.
The most important feature of the boiling water reactor (BWR) is the use of pressurized water as a neutron moderator and as a core coolant. Unlike the pressurized water reactor (PWR), it does not…
The first nuclear power plant built in Spain in 1969, was the José Cabrera nuclear power plant. All nuclear plants that were built at that time, builders and engineers were the same entity. The father of nuclear energy in Spain was Jose Maria Otero of Navascués, who was the director of the laboratory and Research Workshop of Staff of the Navy.
The second generation of nuclear plants were built by the following companies: Company Grouped, INITEC and ENSA.
The third generation includes Trillo and nuclear power plant-2. Proyewctadas were 5 other nuclear plants but construction…
The Blayais Nuclear Power Plant is a nuclear power plant for generating electricity.
The nuclear facility consists of 4 reactors of low pressure water 900MW each which were put into service between 1981 and 1983.
The nuclear power plant is located in France, near the town of Blaye, on the edge of the Gironde estuary between Bordeaux and Royan. For cooling the reactor estuarine water is used.
The nuclear power plant Lemóniz was a product of the nuclear policy of the end of the Franco dictatorship. It was built on the creek in the town of Basordas Lemóniz, province of Vizcaya (Basque Country). 15 km from Bilbao. But never put into operation because of the nuclear moratorium adopted by the socialist government in 1984.
The nuclear plant was part of…
Gravelines nuclear power station in France, is the sixth nuclear power plant in the world. In Europe alone Zaporizhia nuclear power plant (in Ukraine) surpasses it.
The nuclear plant is located next to the North Sea near the community of Gravelines in northern France, 20 km from Calais. The surface of the core is 150 hectares.
The Chinon nuclear power plant is located in France, near Chinon in the territory of the city of Avoine (Indre-et-Loire) in the Country of Véron. Uses water from the Loire River.
The annual production of the nuclear plant is approximately 24 billion kilowatt-hours per year. This production accounts for approximately 4% of national electricity production in France. 1500 people work in the nuclear power plant. History of the Chinon nuclear power plant
The Chinon nuclear power plant has two different types of nuclear reactors: Gas-graphite reactors
A gas reactor or GCR (English gas cooled reactor) is a type of nuclear nuclear reactor of nuclear fission. The neutron moderator of this type of nuclear reactor is graphite. The refrigerant of the nuclear gas reactor is carbon dioxide in the gaseous state. According to the classification made by the International Atomic Energy Agency of the United Nations, IAEA, this type of reactors includes those of the AGR type (of the English Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor) and Magnox (of the English Magnesium Non-OXidising), both of British technology.
Within the history of nuclear energy there was…
Uranium is the most commonly used nuclear fuel in nuclear fission reactions. It is a natural element that can be found in nature. However, in order to be able to use uranium in a nuclear reactor it must undergo some treatment.
To know the peculiarities that make uranium so different from the other substances we must first consider some basic nuclear physics. Basic physical considerations of uranium
An atom of a nucleus and electrons surrounding this nucleus. In turn, a nucleus consists of protons and neutrons. A proton has a positive charge. A neutron has no electric charge…
Mexico is rich in hydrocarbon resources and is a net exporter of energy. Country's interest in nuclear energy is based on the need to reduce their dependence on these sources of energy. In recent years, Mexico's energy is increasingly dependent on natural gas.
The energy growth was very rapid in the 1990s, but then stabilized for a few years. Since 2007 expected new growth in demand for electricity to an average rate of almost 6% per year. In 2007, we generated 257 million kWh. Supply Origin is varied electric, gas 126 TWh (49%), oil of 52 TWh (20%), coal 32 TWh (12.5%) and hydroelectric…
Populritat Although nuclear energy is very low there are applications of nuclear energy for works for the environment. What is the relationship between nuclear energy and the environment?
To reduce pollution in the environment, we need to know where and how much to find these pollutants, the causes of contaminacióny the right solution to prevent it from spreading.
The main source of pollution is found in human activities contributing largely to the increase in pollutants, growth poblacióny industrial technological developments.
At present, the biggest…
The nuclear power station of Vandellós I is part of the nuclear complex located next to the population of L'Hospitalet de l'Infant in the province of Tarragona. The complex is formed by the nuclear plants of Vandellós I and Vandellós II. At present, only the Vandellós II nuclear power plant is still operational.
On 19 October 1989, a nuclear accident occurred at the Vandellós I plant.
That day a fire broke out in the electric generator due to a mechanical failure. Indirectly, this fire caused a flood of seawater in the area of the nuclear reactor…
The Calvert Cliffs nuclear power plant is located on the west coast of the Chesapeake Bay in Lasby, Calvert, Maryland. In U.S.A. It is a nuclear power plant that has two nuclear pressurized water reactors (PWR).
Bechtel designed and built the nuclear power plant.
Unit 1 has a turbine and generator from General Electric. The nuclear reactor 1 has an electrical power of 873 megawatts (MW).
Unit 2 has a turbine and generator from Westinghouse. The…
Byron's nuclear power plant is a nuclear power plant that produces electrical power in Ogle County west of Chicago and 27 km southwest of the city of Rockford, Illinois, in the state of Illinois, in the center from United States. It was approved for launch in 1985 and 1987 respectively. The maximum installed power is 2 300 - 2 356 megawatts MW.
The annual production in 2007 was approximately 18.85 TWh of electric power.
The nuclear facility has two Babcock and Wilcox pressurized water nuclear reactors, unit 1 and unit 2, which started operating in September 1985 and August 1987…
The Browns Ferry nuclear power plant (born as a Browns Ferry nuclear plant) is a functioning nuclear power plant in the southeastern United States.
The station is located on the shores of Lake Wheeler in the Tennessee River Basin in Limestone County, Alabama, 35 miles west of the city of Huntsville. Unit 1 of the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant
Unit 1 is a 1101 megawatt electric BWR / 4 network built by General Electric. Construction began in Unit 1 on September 12, 1966 and was originally started online on December 20, 1973. It was authorized to operate until December…
Ability of a physical system to produce a job.
This definition, although it is the most widespread, can be misleading because of the vagueness of the term "capacity", and therefore, it is better to define the energy as what, when a work occurs, decreases in an amount equal to the work produced. Energy, then, is measured in the same units as labor. History of the study of energy
The notion of energy appears for the first time from the investigations of Joule and Carnot on the conversion of heat in mechanical work and thanks to the theory of Helmholtz in which it connects…
The control rods of nuclear reactors provide speed control nuclear fission reactions delas chain. It is cylindrical tubes made of a neutron absorbing material. This material may be boron carbide or alloys of silver, indium and cadmium.
Dimensions of the control rods are the same as those of the rods of nuclear fuel. They are used to provide a rapid means of control of the nuclear reaction. The control rods to regulate the rate of nuclear reaction
The recovery of the accident area and cleaning products has resulted in a large amount of radioactive waste and contaminated equipment, stored at about 800 different sites inside and outside the 30 km exclusion zone around the nuclear reactor 4 from Chernobyl.
These nuclear wastes are partially stored in containers or buried in trenches, which may lead to a risk of contamination of groundwater.
The sarcophagus and the proliferation of waste storage sites have been assessed as a source of hazardous radioactivity in nearby areas, and some NEA experts feared that the sinking of the…
The experimental fusion reactor ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) is a large-scale scientific experiment designed to test the feasibility of fusion as an energy source. Currently the ITER fusion reactor is under construction in the south of France, in Cadarache.
At the industry level, nuclear fusion does not exist yet. Since the 50s under investigation on the use of the energy generated in the nuclear fusion of light atoms into heavier. The development of nuclear fusion is considered very important because of the advantage offered by the large amount of energy released…
The Doel nuclear power plant (in Dutch: Kerncentrale Doel) is in the territory of Doel (the municipality of Beveren), on the left bank of the Scheldt in Belgium. It is located 25 km north of Antwerp, 42 km north-west of Brussels and 136 km south-southeast of Amsterdam (line all distances).
The nuclear power plant is operated by Electrabel operator. Has a layout of four pressurized water reactors (PWR) Westinghouse (Doel 1, 2 and 3) and Framatome / AREVA (Doel 4)
- Doel 1 412 MWe, commissioned in 1974 for 40 years.
- Doel. 2: 454 MWe, put into service in 1975 for 40…
Watt is the international standard power unit in SI.
James Watt (1736-1819), the inventor of the steam engine, accepted it as the unit of power in the SI unit system. It is the unit that measures the energy conversion rate (joules) divided by seconds. The watt symbol is represented by the letter W.
1W = 1 J / s
In mechanics the watt is the power developed by a force of a newton applied to a point that moves one meter for a second. That is, if the point on which a force of a newton is applied is displaced at a speed of 1 m / s, the power is equal to 1 watt:
1W = 1N…
In a nuclear accident and the accident at the Fukushima nuclear plant in Japan, usually speaks often of the risk of core melt.
Do not confuse the meltdown of a nuclear reactor with nuclear fusion.
Nuclear fusion is the process in which two atoms are joined to form one single pass. This releases a lot of energy that could be harnessed to generate electricity. Unfortunately, these reactions can not be controlled well and much less to create nuclear power to produce electricity.
Nuclear plants currently use nuclear fission reactions, which is based precisely on the basis atom…
Nuclear medicine is defined as the branch of medicine that uses radioactive isotopes, nuclear radiation, electromagnetic variations of the components of the atomic nucleus and related biophysical techniques for the prevention, diagnosis, therapy and medical research.
Clinical applications of radiopharmaceuticals cover virtually all medical specialties.
Nuclear medicine is closely related to several basic and applied sciences such as physics, chemistry, electronics, cybernetics and pharmacy, and other branches of medicine and physiology, pathophysiology, radiology and other diagnostic…
The Bruce Nuclear Generating Station is located in Tiverton, Ontario, Canada. The facility is located in the geographical area of Bruce County, hence its name. It occupies an area of 932 hectares.
The nuclear plant was built in stages between 1970-1987 by the provincial Crown corporation, Ontario Hydro. It was not until May 2001 that the Bruce Nuclear Generating Station began operation. Currently, 3,800 employees work at the plant. Chronology
The initial operating license is 18 years, expiring in 2019, but there is an option to extend up to 25 years until 2044.
The José Cabrera nuclear power plant was the first nuclear nuclear power station built in Spain. It is located in the municipality of Almonacid de Zorita in the province of Guadalajara, along the Tagus river between the dams of Bolarque and Zorita, taking the latter reservoir water flow needed for supply and cooling.
The company Union Electrica…
Electricity consumption in Argentina has grown strongly since 1990. Per capita consumption was just over 2,000 kWh / year in 2002 and increased to over 2,600 kWh / year in 2007. Gross production of electricity in 2007 was 115 million kWh, 54% from gas, 27% hydro, 9.4% oil, a 2.2% from coal, and 6.3% (7.2 million kWh) of nuclear origin. In 2008, nuclear energy provides more than 6.8 million kWh of electricity - about 6.2% of total electricity generation.
In Argentina, the electricity production is largely privatized, and is regulated by the ENRE (National Regulatory Authority for Electricity).…
The nuclear power plant Angra is one of the few nuclear plants in Brazil. The plant is located in Angra Nuclear Power Plant (CNAAA) in Playa Itaorna in Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
This is two nuclear pressurized water reactors
- The nuclear reactor Angra 1 has a net power of 637 MWe, connected to the electricity grid for the first time in 1985.
- The nuclear reactor Angra 2 has a net capacity of 1,350 MWe, I connectado to the electricity grid in 2000.
- It is working on a third reactor, Angra 3, which will have an estimated capacity of 1,405 MWe.…
The Santa María de Garoña Nuclear Power Plant is a nuclear power power generation located in Santa Maria de Garona, province of Castilla y Leon in Spain. His life ended in 2012. Initially the expected useful life of the plant was until 2011 and was last operating license until 2009. After analyzing a report by the Nuclear Safety Council (CSN), the Spanish government decided to extend the authorization until 2013. the report set out a series of limits and conditions that must be met after the Fukushima nuclear accident.
The operation of an atomic bomb is similar to the operation of a nuclear reactor, wherein the mass of fuel is well above the critical mass. Initially, the fuel is fragmented, and each of the pieces, enough from the others, so it untreated the critical size; Explosion occurs at closer fragments including sharply.
To increase the performance and efficiency of an atomic bomb to be used practically pure fuels; those used so far have been uranium-235 and plutonium-239. Uranium-235 is difficult and expensive to obtain, because it is not possible to chemically separate it from natural uranium…
The INES scale is a tool to quantify the severity of a nuclear and radiological event (either accidents or nuclear incidents).
INES is the acronym for International Nuclear Events Scale.
It is used worldwide to systematically inform the public about the importance of the nuclear and radiological events from the point of view of safety.…
In August 1976 permission was granted for the installation of a nuclear power plant in the municipality of Regodola (Lugo). The grant was made to the group of companies comprising Fenosa, Hydroelectric and Electra de Viesgo Biscay, the latter two with a 20% stake.
The Regodola nuclear power plant had had a rated capacity of 1,000 MWe light water. The development of the project and the limits and conditions on nuclear safety in resolving especificavan DG Energy.
At that time in Spain there were three operating nuclear power plants, three in construccióny 15 project.…
A proton is a subatomic particle with a positive electric charge that lies within the atomic nucleus of atoms. The number of protons in the atomic nucleus is that which determines the atomic number of an element, as indicated in the periodic table of the elements.
The proton has +1 charge (or, alternatively, 1,602 x 10-19 coulombs), exactly the opposite of the charge -1 containing the electron. In mass, however, there is no competition because the mass of the proton is approximately 1,836 times greater than that of an electron.
The proton is…
Neutron moderator is a component part of the nuclear reactors. It is located in the reactor core. The function of the moderator is to reduce the speed of the neutrons in a nuclear fission reaction.
During nuclear reactions fission neutrons collide with fissile atoms (
Atucha II is a nuclear power plant in Argentina, based in Lima, Buenos Aires, built next to Atucha I. Its construction began in June 1981 under a contract with Siemens. Like Atucha I, is a nuclear reactor heavy pressure water (PHWR), planned to offer a much greater ptencia (about thermal energy. It must be 2,000 MW transformed into electricity remained at 750 MWe ). At the time it was started, he had the highest containment building around the world. The total cost is estimated at US $ 3.8 billion, or about $ 5500 / kWe, considerably higher than the world average $ 1500 / kWe.
The nuclear power plant is located in CernavodÄƒ CernavodÄƒ in Romania.
The nuclear plant produces about 18% of the country's electricity. Uses a nuclear reactor CANDU heavy water technology. Take the Danube River water for cooling.
The design of the nuclear plant was commissioned by the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited in the 80s, during the Communist era.
The initial project involved five units construcció
- Unit No. 1. The construction of this unit ended in 1996 with an output of 705.6 MW electric power.
- Unit number 2. day…
A radioactive nuclide radionuclides or radionuclide is an unstable nuclide and thus degenerates emitting ionizing radiation. Although some physicists sometimes commonly used to designate the palabraradioisótopo however, it should be noted that strict or formal language of physics and nuclear technology is flawed as a nuclide and an isotope are not the same. When a radionuclide emits radiactividadalcanza a more stable state, which requires less energy than before, and generally becomes a different nuclide (or in the same,…
After years of neglect of the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl nuclear plant, it may be given a new use as the Ukrainian authorities are considering turning it into a huge solar power plant.
The Chernobyl nuclear power plant suffered the worst nuclear accident in history when in 1985 exploded the core of its reactor No. 4. The severity of the accident along with mismanagement after the accident, generated a lot of contaminated area and consequently, abandoned.
Now, 30 years later, it is considering giving a new utility: it is turn the area into a plant of photovoltaic solar energy,…
Tritium is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen whose nucleus is a proton and two neutrons. The most important application of tritium is use as nuclear fuel for energy production by nuclear fusion.
It is usually designated by the symbol T, although you should symbolize systematically as 3H. It was discovered on 1934 by Rutherford, Oliphant and Harteck in the study of deuteron bombardment of deuterium.
Tritium in the atmosphere occurs at the rate of one atom of hydrogen per 1017, and is continuously formed in the upper atmosphere nuclear reactions induced…
The Bohunice nuclear power plant (also known by its acronym in Slovak EBO: Atómové elektrárne Bohunice) is a 4 nuclear reactors. It is in Slovakia to two and a half Jaslovské Bohunice quilometros and a pubeldo Trnavaen district.
The Bohunice includes two plants: V1 and V2. These two nuclear plants each comprising two nuclear reactors, which, in total there are 4 reactors installation.
The Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant is a nuclear power plant for generating electricity. The Central is located in in Koodankulam of, in the Tirunelveli district of Tamil Nadu state in southern Asian country of India.
The first reactor becomes the reactor number 21 built in India.
The construction of the nuclear plant began on March 31, 2002. Types of nuclear reactors at the Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant
The No. 1 reactor of the plant is the first pressurized water reactor (PWR) belonging to the category of light water reactor (LWR) in India, and the nuclear reactor…
Almaraz Nuclear Power supplied 16,000 million kWh annually throughout Spain.
The Alamarz Nuclear Power Plants I and II are located in the municipality of Almaraz de Tajo (Cáceres). The land owned by the central cover an area of 1,683 hectares located in the municipalities of Almaraz, Saucedilla and Serrejón Romangordo.
The Almaraz consists of two light water reactors of 2686 MW pressurized thermal, each with three cooling circuits, and manufacturing and construction is a Spanish contribution greater than 80 100. Both units use as fuel slightly enriched uranium oxide…
The Brunswick nuclear power plant is a nuclear power plant that produces electricity in the Atlantic Ocean, just north of the city of Southport in Brunswick County on the south coast of the state of North Carolina in the United States. The last two reactors of the nuclear power plant were approved for commissioning in 1975 and 1977. The maximum installed power is 1,875 MW, and the annual production in 2007 was approximately 15.02 TWh of power.
The plant is owned by Progress Energy. It has a total of two reactors that are in operation, each with an average maximum power of 933 megawatts.…
In 1977 the people of Escatrón installation approved by referendum in the municipality of central nuclear energy production.
With a 93.92% of the electorate in favor is contabiliaron 40 votes against and 39 abstentions nuclear plant.
Many neighbors saw in the nuclear a possibility of salvation of the municipality. But later the project was blocked in by the decree of the nuclear moratorium.
A steam turbine is a machine that exploits the thermal energy of steam under pressure, converting it into useful mechanical energy through a thermodynamic transformation of expansion. Specifically, the steam turbine converts the internal energy of the vapor into kinetic energy of rotation.
The steam turbine, thanks to the highest thermal efficiency and the best power / weight ratio, has completely replaced the steam engine, which was an alternative engine invented by Thomas Newcomen and then significantly improved by James Watt.
From a thermodynamic point of view, the maximum…
In physics and chemistry, the atomic theory is a scientific theory of the nature of matter, which states that matter is composed of units called atoms. Atomic theory began as a philosophical concept in ancient Greece and entered the mainstream of the nineteenth century when discoveries in the field of chemistry showed that matter really behaves as if it were an atom.
The word atom originates in the atomic adjective of the ancient Greek, which means "indivisible". As explained in the history of nuclear energy. Nineteenth-century chemists began to use the term in relation to the growing…
The atomic nucleus is the small central part of the atom, with a positive electric charge and in which most of the mass of the atom is concentrated. Ernest Ruthenford discovered it in 1911. After the discovery of the neutron, in 1932, the atomic nucleus model was quickly developed by Dmitri Ivanenko and Werner Heisenberg.
The major subatomic particles in the nuclei of atoms are protons and neutrons or nucleons (except ordinary hydrogen, which contains only one proton). A single chemical element is characterized by the number of protons in the nucleus that determines the total positive…
Isotopes are atoms whose nuclei have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons. Not all atoms of the same element are identical and each of these varieties corresponds to a different isotope.
Each isotope of the same element have the same atomic number (Z) but each has a different mass number (A). The atomic number is the number of protons in the atomic nucleus of the atom. The mass number is the sum of neutrons and protons of the core. This means that different isotopes of the same atom differ from each other only by the number of neutrons.
The items that can…
The specialty of nuclear medicine that uses ionizing radiation for the treatment of malignant tumors is known as radiation therapy.
When radioactive unsealed sources speak of metabolic radiotherapy, which involves injecting or to ingest a relatively large dose of a radioactive substance in liquid form, so that it accumulates in the organ to be treated, which acts through used of radiation emitted on fabrics in contact therewith, producing the desired destruction of tumor cells effects.
This type of therapy is used to treat hyperthyroidism, thyroid cancer, bone metastases from…
In nuclear medicine, a particular radionuclide is administered to the patient, in order to investigate a specific physiological phenomenon by a special detector, generally a gamma camera, outside the body. The injected radionuclide is selectively deposited in certain organs (thyroid, kidney, etc.) can be seen from the gamma camera the size, shape and function of these bodies. Most of these procedures are diagnostic, although some radionuclides are administered for therapeutic purposes.
Useful radionuclides in nuclear medicine are as follows:
- Diagnosis "in life" emitting:…
The treatment plant is uranium fuel in Tokaimura (Japan), 120km northeast of Tokyo, in Ibaraki Prefecture. Property is currently owned by JCO Company.
The nuclear accident at the facility took place on September 30, 1999, in the building of the plant conversion.
The installation consists of three auxiliary buildings uranium conversion:
- One with an annual capacity of 220 tons of uranium per year for low-enriched (about 5%).
- Another with an annual capacity of 495 tons of uranium per year for low-enriched (less than 5%).
- Another, who had the accident,…
The nuclear accident at the nuclear power plant at Three Mile Island occurred on March 28, 1979, one year after the commissioning of Unit 2 (TMI-2). The nuclear accident occurred the second reactor of the plant;. Reactor pressurized water
The Three Mile Island is located about 16 km from Harrisburg in the state of Pennsylvania, in the United States.
On the 4am circuit responsible for supplying water to the turbines disconnected which caused him to stop the cooling function of the primary circuit.
The Trillo located in the municipality of Trillo (Guadalajara). It was inaugurated in 1987 is today the most modern nuclear power plant in Spain for the production of electricity.
Subsequently screened a second nuclear plant in the municipality of Trillo but the project was stalled due to the nuclear moratorium.
The Braidwood nuclear power plant is a nuclear power plant that produces electricity in the county of Will, south of Chicago, in the state of Illinois, in the center of the United States. Its reactors were approved for commissioning in July 1988 and October 1988, respectively. The maximum installed power is 2330 megawatts. The annual production in 2007 was approximately 19.66 TWh of electricity.
The plant is owned by Exelon Corporation. It has a total of two reactors that are in operation, each with a maximum of approx. 1 125 MW of power. The net production in the plant is normally only…
The nuclear power plant Belleville-sur-Loire exculsivamente is dedicated to the production of electricity.
The nuclear plant is located northeast of the department of Cher, in France, on the left bank of the Loire, at the crossroads of four departments (Cher, Nièvre, The Loiret and Yonne) and two administrative regions (Borgoñay Center). It is located in the municipalities of Belleville-sur-Loire and Sury-près Léré occupying an area of 170 hectares.
The nuclear power plant Belleville-sur-Loire, has two pressurized water reactors (PWR) 1…
The Cofrentes nuclear power plant came into operation on 14 October 1984.
This is a nuclear power generation plant with a reactor BWR-6-Boiling Water Reactor (boiling water reactor 6th generation) type originally boast a total installed capacity of 992 MWe but after certain improvements were achieved expand the power in the current 111.85%, equivalent to 1,110 MWe. Location Nuclear Power Plant
It is located in the municipality of Cofrentes, in the province of Valencia about 110 km from the provincial capital. It was built on the right bank of the river Juncar of taking…
The nuclear plant Asco is a second-generation nuclear power plant located in Asco (Tarragona) along the Ebro river is a plant consisting of two nuclear reactors. Asco Asco I and II. The Asco I reactor began operating on December 10, 1984, while the second did on 8 March 1986.
Both nuclear recator 1 and 2 are thermal reactors pressurized water (PWR type) with a power of…
Hamaoka Nuclear Power Plant is a nuclear power plant located in Omaezaki, Shizuoka prefecture on the east coast of Japan, 200 km southwest of Tokyo.
The gstion Central borne by the company Chubu Electric Power Company.
The Hamaoka nuclear power plant consists of five nuclear reactors. On 22 December 2008 the construction of a sixth unit was started.
The reactors 1 and 2 of Hamaoka were off on 30 January 2009.
The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Fukushima nuclear plant or one (Dai-ichi means "number one" in Japanese) is composed of six nuclear reactor nuclear boiling water (BWR). The plant is located in the city of ÅŒkuma (Fukushima Prefecture, Japan). Uses sea water for cooling.
Located just twelve kilometers from another great power, the Fukushima Daini nuclear plant, Fukushima or II, with four reactors.