The nuclear moratorium is the temporary suspension of the construction and start-up of nuclear power plants.
In 1983 in Spain a National Energy Plan was drafted in which a nuclear moratorium would be decreed in the country. The nuclear moratorium involved the blocking of 5 nuclear power plant projects out of the 7 that had been approved. Technically it was a brake on the dynamics of the development of nuclear energy in the country. What reasons caused the nuclear motive?
There are several reasons that motivated the creation of the nuclear moratorium:
After the Second World War, the main use that was given to nuclear energy was the generation of electric power. Electricity, in this case, is generated in nuclear power plants. Generation of electricity through nuclear energy
The process to obtain electricity through nuclear energy is the result of a thermodynamic and mechanical process.
A nuclear power plant has the objective of transforming the internal energy of the uranium atoms into electrical energy. This process is…
A steam turbine is a machine that exploits the thermal energy of steam under pressure, converting it into useful mechanical energy through a thermodynamic transformation of expansion. Specifically, the steam turbine converts the internal energy of the vapor into kinetic energy of rotation.
The steam turbine, thanks to the highest thermal efficiency and the best power / weight ratio, has completely replaced the steam engine, which was an alternative engine invented by Thomas Newcomen and then significantly improved by James Watt.
From a thermodynamic point of view, the maximum…
We define electricity as the form of energy that results from the existence of a potential difference between two points. When these two points are put in contact by means of an electrical conductor we obtain an electric current.
In physics, the electric potential energy, also called electrostatic potential energy, is the potential energy of the electrostatic field. This is an energy that has an electrical charge distribution, and is linked to the force exerted by the field generated by the distribution itself. Together with magnetic energy, the electric potential energy constitutes…
At the moment of analyzing the disadvantages of nuclear energy in the first place, it is necessary to consider the different areas in which nuclear energy is used. The main use of nuclear energy is the generation of electricity. Although electricity production is the most controversial nuclear application, nuclear technology is also used in the military, medical or environmental fields, among others.
One of the advantages of nuclear energy is that it reduces the dependence on thermal power plants and, therefore, the consumption of fossil fuels. However,…
The main use of nuclear energy is the generation of electrical energy in nuclear power plants. If, however, you are also familiar with other uses in the civil field. One of them is the applications of nuclear energy related to the environment.
Although the popularity of nuclear energy is very low due to the effects produced in nuclear accidents such as Fukushima or Chernobyl, there are applications of nuclear energy to work in favor of the environment.
In these applications we highlight the following:
- Improve the greenhouse effect problem
Nuclear power in Spain began in 1964 with the start of the construction of three nuclear power plants: the José Carbrera nuclear power plant, the Santa María de Garoña nuclear power plant and the Vandellós nuclear power plant 1.
The first reactor that was built was that of the José Cabrera nuclear power plant, Zorita. The type of nuclear reactor in the plant is a pressurized water reactor. Two years later the construction of the Santa María de Garoña nuclear power plant begins. In this case, a boiling water nuclear reactor…
Atomic energy comes from the atom, it is the energy that holds together neutrons and protons of the nuclei of atoms. It is also known how nuclear energy, which comes from the nucleus. The name nuclear energy is used because most of the energy of an atom resides in its nucleus.
Two parts of the atom, the nucleus and the crust are differentiated. In the cortex, an indeterminate number of electrons orbit around the nucleus. The nucleus is composed of an indeterminate number of neutrons and protons. The amount of protons in the nucleus will determine the element that the atom is treated,…
Mexico is rich in hydrocarbon resources and is a net exporter of energy. The country's interest in nuclear energy is based on the need to reduce its dependence on these non-renewable energy sources. In recent years, energy in Mexico is increasingly dependent on natural gas.
Energy growth in Mexico was very rapid in the 1990s, but then stabilized for a few years. Since 2007, a new growth in the demand for electric power was expected, up to an average rate of almost 6% per year.
In 2016, Mexico generated 20% of its electric power through clean sources, including…
The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident is a series of incidents, including four separate explosions, that took place at the Naraha nuclear power plant in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, following the Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami on March 11. 2011. The Fukushima nuclear facility was a nuclear power plant to convert nuclear energy into electrical energy.
The Fukushima nuclear disaster occurred on March 11, 2011. It is the most serious nuclear accident in history after the Chernobyl nuclear accident.
The accident was caused by an 8.9-degree earthquake near the northwest coast of…
In 1974 the French government made the decision to rapidly expand the nuclear power production capacity in France just after the first oil crisis. This decision was made in the context of a France with substantial competence in engineering, but with few autochthonous energy resources. Nuclear energy, with the cost of fuel is a relatively small part of the total cost, in this sense a reduction in imports was achieved and greater energy security was achieved.
As a result of the 1974 decision, France currently has a significant level of energy independence and almost the lowest…
A nuclear reactor is a facility capable of initiating, controlling and maintaining nuclear reactions (usually nuclear fission) in chain that occur in the core of this installation.
The composition of the nuclear reactor is formed by the nuclear fuel, the refrigerant, the control elements, the structural materials and, in the case of a nuclear reactor, the nuclear moderator.
To build a nuclear reactor it is necessary to have enough nuclear fuel, which we call critical mass. Having enough critical mass means having enough fissile…
Nuclear energy began to develop during the first decade of 1940. Initially, the research was aimed at the development and production of the atomic bomb. Subsequently, research began on other applications of nuclear energy; the investigation focused on the peaceful use of nuclear energy.
Currently, there are 30 countries in the world that have nuclear power plants for the generation of electricity. In any case, the number of countries that take advantage of nuclear energy is much greater since countries such as Denmark and Italy, which do not have any nuclear facilities, obtain about…
A nuclear power plant is a facility for obtaining electrical energy using nuclear energy.
Its operation is similar to that of a thermal power plant or that of a solar thermal plant: from a source of energy thermodynamics is used to obtain heat, with the heat to get steam and with the steam to drive a turbine that will generate electricity.
The difference between the different types of electrical installations is in the energy source: a nuclear power plant uses the heat released in the nuclear fission reactions of certain atoms, in a thermal power station the heat source (thermal…
One of the main problems in the use of nuclear energy is the management of nuclear waste as it is very dangerous and difficult to eliminate. What is done with nuclear waste?
Nuclear waste is one of the main problems related to nuclear energy. If these wastes are not treated properly, they are highly hazardous to the population and the environment.
Radioactive waste can be classified according to its physical and chemical characteristics and by its activity.
Classifying them by their activity we have:
- High-level nuclear waste, composed of elements of…
The use of nuclear energy involves some controversy. The main disadvantages of nuclear energy are widely known, especially those related to environmental pollution problems in the event of nuclear incidents or accidents.
However, the advantages of nuclear energy are important enough to keep this technology active. The main use of this technology based on the manipulation of atoms is the generation of electrical energy, which is considered a form of non-renewable energy.
Despite this, there are other uses of nuclear energy in such important fields as medicine, pest control,…
What is nuclear energy? Nuclear energy is the internal energy in the atomic nucleus, that is, the central part of an atom. Atoms are the smallest particles in which a material can be divided. The nucleus of an atom is composed of two subparticles: neutrons and protons. These subparticles are held together due to energy links. At the moment in which these bonds are modified, a large amount of thermal energy is released in the form of heat.
Nuclear technology deals with the use of this internal energy for a wide variety of applications. The most well-known…
A boiling water reactor or BWR is a type of nuclear reactor. It is the second type of reactor most used in nuclear power plants in the world. Approximately 22% of the nuclear reactors installed in the different nuclear power plants use the boiling water reactor.
The main function of this type of reactors is their installation in power plants of power for the generation of electricity.
The most important feature of the boiling water reactor (BWR) is the use of pressurized water as a neutron moderator and as a core coolant. Unlike the pressurized water reactor (PWR), it does not…
Nuclear power in India is currently in a state of growth with strong nuclear development plans. By 2020, India has set a target to supply 14,600 MW to the grid through the use of nuclear energy. Subsequently, in 2050, India wants 25% of electricity is produced by nuclear energy.
India is a founding member of the global nuclear watchdog, the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna.
Because of these restrictions on trade and the lack of indigenous uranium, only India has been developing a nuclear fuel cycle to exploit its reserves of thorium.
Plans to boost nuclear power…
To explain the history of nuclear energy we could distinguish three major stages:
- Physical and chemical scientific studies of the elements.
- The development of the nuclear bomb during World War II.
- Use of nuclear energy in the civil field.
Scientific studies cover this whole period since the first Greek philosophers began to define atoms, until the development of the first nuclear bomb. In this process, different scientists discover the presence of electrons, neutrons and protons and properties that make one atom more radioactive than another.…
Nowadays, the main use given to nuclear energy is the generation of electric power. Nuclear power plants are responsible of doing this process. Almost all nuclear power plants in production are using nuclear fission since the nuclear fusion, despite being under development, is currently unfeasible.
The operation of a nuclear power plant is identical to the operation of a thermoelectric power plant working with fossil fuels like coal, oil or gas, except in the way of providing heat to the water for converting this one into steam. In nuclear reactors this process of producing heat is made…
In this section we analyze the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear energy. Nevertheless, most organizations related to nuclear energy are already positioned for or against the use of nuclear energy. On this site we try to make an objective analysis about this question, giving all the relevant information and offering a space for different conclusions.
The advantages and disadvantages of nuclear energy have made this alternative energy source one of the most controversial on the market today. Understanding the pros and cons of this energy source can help…
Watt is the international standard power unit in SI.
James Watt (1736-1819), the inventor of the steam engine, accepted it as the unit of power in the SI unit system. It is the unit that measures the energy conversion rate (joules) divided by seconds. The watt symbol is represented by the letter W.
1W = 1 J / s
In mechanics the watt is the power developed by a force of a newton applied to a point that moves one meter for a second. That is, if the point on which a force of a newton is applied is displaced at a speed of 1 m / s, the power is equal to 1 watt:
1W = 1N…
The electric generator is an essential element in nuclear power plants. The objective of nucelar power plants is to convert nuclear energy from nuclear fission reactions into electrical energy. The function of the electric generator is to convert the mechanical energy from one coming from a steam turbine into electricity. What is an electric generator?
An electric generator is a machine capable of transforming some type of energy, which can be chemical energy, mechanical or light energy, into electrical energy. Mechanical energy sources include steam turbines, gas…
In 2016, gross electricity production in Brazil was 579 TWh, including 381 TWh (66%) of hydroelectric power, 56 TWh (10%) of gas, 51 TWh (9%) of biomass and waste, 34 TWh ( 6%) of wind energy and solar energy, 26 TWh (4%) of coal, 16 TWh (3%) of nuclear and 15 TWh (3%) of oil.
The high dependence on hydroelectric energy leads to a certain climate vulnerability that is driving the policy to reduce dependence on it.
Around 40% of Brazil's electricity is produced by the national system of Eletrobrás a. About 20% of electricity comes from public utilities, and the rest comes…
Nuclear energy is the energy contained in the nucleus of atoms. Nuclear energy is used in multiple applications (see applications of nuclear energy), but the best known application is the generation of electricity.
The term nuclear energy is often used to refer to the electrical energy generated by nuclear power plants.
One of the ways of harnessing…
Nuclear reactors can be classified according to different criteria. One of the criteria is the purpose for which they will be used. In this regard we distinguish the types of nuclear reactors used for civilian purposes, for military purposes or for research purposes.
Civil nuclear reactors use nuclear energy to generate power for electricity; military reactors create materials that can be used in nuclear weapons such as the atomic bomb; and research nuclear reactors used to develop weapons or energy production technology, for development purposes, for nuclear physics…
The main use of nuclear energy is the production of electrical energy. Nuclear power plants are responsible for generating electricity. Nuclear fission reactions are generated in the nuclear reactors of the nuclear power plants. With these reactions, thermal energy is obtained that will be transformed into mechanical energy and later into electrical energy.
However, there are many other uses in which nuclear energy is used directly or indirectly.
Working with different isotopes of the same element, you can use nuclear technology for other uses in various fields:…