Nuclear Power Plant Isar, Germany

Spent nuclear fuel pool

Turbine of a nuclear plant


Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine

Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine

The specialty of nuclear medicine that uses ionizing radiation for the treatment of malignant tumors is known as radiation therapy.

When radioactive unsealed sources speak of metabolic radiotherapy, which involves injecting or to ingest a relatively large dose of a radioactive substance in liquid form, so that it accumulates in the organ to be treated, which acts through used of radiation emitted on fabrics in contact therewith, producing the desired destruction of tumor cells effects.

This type of therapy is used to treat hyperthyroidism, thyroid cancer, bone metastases from…

Accident in Tokaimura Nuclear Fuel Treatment Plant

Accident in Tokaimura Nuclear Fuel Treatment Plant

The uranium fuel treatment facility is located in Tokaimura (Japan), 120km northeast of Tokyo, in the Ibaraki Prefecture. It is currently owned by the company JCO.

The nuclear accident of the installation took place on September 30, 1999, in the conversion building of the nuclear plant.

The installation consists of three auxiliary uranium conversion buildings:

  • One with an annual capacity of 220 tons of uranium per year for low enrichment (approximately 5%).
  • Another with…

Nuclear Energy in Industry

Nuclear Energy in Industry

The use of nuclear power in modern industry in developed countries is very important for improving processes for measurement and automation, and quality control.

The use of radiation is applied in a wide range of activities, either in quality control of industrial processes, raw materials (cement, power plants, oil refineries, etc..) Or quality control of products manufactured in series, as a prerequisite for the full automation of the production lines at high speed.

Irradiation with intense sources is considered as an operation to improve the quality of certain products (special…

History of Nuclear Energy

History of Nuclear Energy

To explain the history of nuclear energy we could distinguish three major stages:

  • Physical and chemical scientific studies of the elements.
  • The development of the nuclear bomb during World War II.
  • Use of nuclear energy in the civil field.

Scientific studies cover this whole period since the first Greek philosophers began to define atoms, until the development of the first nuclear bomb. In this process, different scientists discover the presence of electrons, neutrons and protons and properties that make one atom more radioactive than another.

Atomic theory

Atomic theory

In physics and chemistry, the atomic theory is a scientific theory of the nature of matter, which states that matter is composed of units called atoms. Atomic theory began as a philosophical concept in ancient Greece and entered the mainstream of the nineteenth century when discoveries in the field of chemistry showed that matter really behaves as if it were an atom.

The word atom originates in the atomic adjective of the ancient Greek, which means "indivisible". As explained in the history of nuclear energy. Nineteenth-century chemists began to use the term in relation to the growing…

Chernobyl Nuclear Accident

Chernobyl Nuclear Accident

The nuclear accident in Chernobyl (1986) is by far the most serious nuclear accident in the history of nuclear energy. It was classified as level 7 (severe nuclear accident) of the INES scale, the highest value. Although it is the same level at the Fukushima nuclear accident was classified, the consequences of the Chernobyl accident were still far worse.

The Chernobyl nuclear power plant is located near the town of Prypyat, 18km from the city of Chernobyl.

At the time of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident provided 4 reactors in operation and two more were under construction.

Neutron. What is it?

Neutron. What is it?

A neutron is a subatomic particle contained in the atomic nucleus. It has no net electric charge, unlike the proton that has a positive electric charge. The number of neutrons in the atomic nucleus of an element determines the isotope to which it is a part.

Discovery of the neutron

The first clue to the existence of the neutron occurred in 1930, when Walther Bothe and Becker, H. found that when alpha radiation fell on elements such as lithium and boron, a new form of radiation was emitted.

Initially, this radiation was believed to be a type of gamma radiation, but it was…



Sievert is a unit derived from the dose of ionizing radiation in the International System of Units. It is represented by the symbol Sv. It is a measure of the effect on health health of low levels of ionizing radiation in the human body. The sievert is of fundamental importance in dosimetry and protection against radiation.

The name of sievert is due to the Swedish medical physicist Rolf Maximilian Sievert for his work in the measurement of the dose of radiation and the investigation of the biological effects of the radiation.

Quantities measured in sieverts are intended to represent…

Fukushima Nuclear Accident

Fukushima Nuclear Accident

On March 11, 2011 in Fukushima occurred one of the worst nuclear accidents in history after the Chernobyl nuclear accident.

A 8.9 magnitude earthquake off the northwest coast of Japan and a subsequent tsunami severely affected Dahiichi Fukushima nuclear plant on the northeast coast of Japan.

At the time of the nuclear accident at the Fukushima reactors had 6. Reactors 1, 2 and 3 were operating while nuclear reactors 4, 5 and 6 were unemployed for maintenance.

After the earthquake Fukushima reactors that were still running is automatically stopped. To cool the reactors,…

Nuclear Energy and the Environment

Nuclear Energy and the Environment

Populritat Although nuclear energy is very low there are applications of nuclear energy for works for the environment.

What is the relationship between nuclear energy and the environment?

To reduce pollution in the environment, we need to know where and how much to find these pollutants, the causes of contaminacióny the right solution to prevent it from spreading.

The main source of pollution is found in human activities contributing largely to the increase in pollutants, growth poblacióny industrial technological developments.

At present, the biggest…

Nuclear Accidents

Nuclear Accidents

In nuclear energy, we refer to nuclear accident to those incidents that emit a certain level of radiation, which could harm public health.

Nuclear accidents are classified as nuclear accidents and incidents depending on the severity´s level. In this classification nuclear accidents and radioactive accidents are included. To understand the difference between these two types of accidents, a nuclear accident could be the failure of a reactor of a nuclear power plant and a radiation accident could be when pouring a radiation source to a river.

Despite the known nuclear…



Plutonium is a chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94 which belongs to the actinide series of elements. Plutonium has 16 isotopes, all radioactive. The element is a silvery metal and has 5 different crystal structures.

Chemically plutonium is a very active material. You can form compounds with all nonmetals except the noble gases. The metal dissolves in acidic and reacts with water, but only moderately in comparison with the acid.

While you can find traces in nature, all isotopes of plutonium are of artificial origin.

Radioactivity plutonium

The more…

Mayak Nuclear Accident

Mayak Nuclear Accident

Mayak is one of the highest points of the planet with radioactive contamination. It is also conce as Mayak Production Association (Russian: Маяк производственное объединение ). These are the names by which a complex known nuclear facilities between the cities of Kaslo and Kyshtym in laprovincia Chelyabinsk, Russia.

The Mayak nuclear accident is little known because the Soviet authorities tried to hide for 30 years nuclear leaks have been occurring.

History of Mayak nuclear plant

The construction and launch of the atomic bomb on the Japanese…

Transport and management of nuclear waste alamcenamiento low and intermediate level

The term nuclear waste management as a set of activities that lead to reuse your desaparicióno your neutralizacióny evacuacióna right places, ensuring long-term safety.

The storage of nuclear waste in low and intermediate level is based on the filing of natural and artificial barriers between these nuclear waste and the environment, so they are perfectly isolated long enough until their radioactivity decay to harmless levels. To store the radioactive waste of low and medium activity generated in Spain, has ENRESA Storage Center The Cabril in the province of Cordoba,…

Nuclear Medicine

Nuclear Medicine

Nuclear medicine is defined as the branch of medicine that uses radioactive isotopes, nuclear radiation, electromagnetic variations of the components of the atomic nucleus and related biophysical techniques for the prevention, diagnosis, therapy and medical research.

Clinical applications of radiopharmaceuticals cover virtually all medical specialties.

Nuclear medicine is closely related to several basic and applied sciences such as physics, chemistry, electronics, cybernetics and pharmacy, and other branches of medicine and physiology, pathophysiology, radiology and other diagnostic…

Scale INES - International Nuclear Event Scale

The INES scale is a tool to quantify the severity of a nuclear and radiological event (either accidents or nuclear incidents).

INES is the acronym for International Nuclear Events Scale.

It is used worldwide to systematically inform the public about the importance of the nuclear and radiological events from the point of view of safety.

Antoine-Henri Becquerel

Antoine-Henri Becquerel studied at the Ecole Polytechnique. In 1875 he joined the department of roads and bridges, and came to chief engineer in 1894. In 1892 he succeeded his father to the chair of the Musée d'Histoire Naturelle, and in 1895 came a professor at the École Polytechnique.

Continued studies of his father, and the discovery…

Chalk River Nuclear Accident

The Chalk River Laboratories Chalk River Labs and formerly called Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories is a facility located near Chalk River, Ontario (Canada) population engaged in the research of nuclear reactions.

The installation was born in 1942 as a result of the collaboration between the British and Canadian nuclear research. In 1944 Chalk River Laboratories were inaugurated in September 1945 and the installation put into operation the first nuclear reactor outside the United States.

The NRX is a research nuclear reactor moderated by heavy water, cooled by…