Nuclear Power Plant Isar, Germany

Spent nuclear fuel pool

Turbine of a nuclear plant

Radioactive

Radioactivity definition

Radioactivity definition

Radioactivity defined as the spontaneous emission of particles (alpha, beta, neutron) or radiation (gamma, K capture), or both at the same time, from the decay of certain nuclides that these particles are, due to an adjustment of their internal structure.

Radioactivity can be natural or artificial. In natural radioactivity, the substance already has radioactivity in the natural state. In artificial radioactivity, the radioactivity has been induced by irradiation.

A radionuclide is all the radioactive cores of the same kind. All radioactive cores forming a radionuclide…

Transport and management of nuclear waste alamcenamiento low and intermediate level

The term nuclear waste management as a set of activities that lead to reuse your desaparicióno your neutralizacióny evacuacióna right places, ensuring long-term safety.

The storage of nuclear waste in low and intermediate level is based on the filing of natural and artificial barriers between these nuclear waste and the environment, so they are perfectly isolated long enough until their radioactivity decay to harmless levels. To store the radioactive waste of low and medium activity generated in Spain, has ENRESA Storage Center The Cabril in the province of Cordoba,…

Scale INES - International Nuclear Event Scale

The INES scale is a tool to quantify the severity of a nuclear and radiological event (either accidents or nuclear incidents).

INES is the acronym for International Nuclear Events Scale.

It is used worldwide to systematically inform the public about the importance of the nuclear and radiological events from the point of view of safety.

Therapeutic nuclear medicine

The specialty of nuclear medicine that uses ionizing radiation for the treatment of malignant tumors is known as radiation therapy.

When radioactive unsealed sources speak of metabolic radiotherapy, which involves injecting or to ingest a relatively large dose of a radioactive substance in liquid form, so that it accumulates in the organ to be treated, which acts through used of radiation emitted on fabrics in contact therewith, producing the desired destruction of tumor cells effects.

This type of therapy is used to treat hyperthyroidism, thyroid cancer, bone metastases from…

Mayak nuclear accident

Mayak nuclear accident

Mayak is one of the highest points of the planet with radioactive contamination. It is also conce as Mayak Production Association (Russian: Маяк производственное объединение ). These are the names by which a complex known nuclear facilities between the cities of Kaslo and Kyshtym in laprovincia Chelyabinsk, Russia.

The Mayak nuclear accident is little known because the Soviet authorities tried to hide for 30 years nuclear leaks have been occurring.

History of Mayak nuclear plant

The construction and launch of the atomic bomb on the Japanese…

Nuclear accidents

Nuclear accidents

In nuclear energy, we refer to nuclear accident to those incidents that emit a certain level of radiation, which could harm public health.

Nuclear accidents are classified as nuclear accidents and incidents depending on the severity´s level. In this classification nuclear accidents and radioactive accidents are included. To understand the difference between these two types of accidents, a nuclear accident could be the failure of a reactor of a nuclear power plant and a radiation accident could be when pouring a radiation source to a river.

Despite the known nuclear…

Chernobyl nuclear accident

Chernobyl nuclear accident

The nuclear accident in Chernobyl (1986) is by far the most serious nuclear accident in the history of nuclear energy. It was classified as level 7 (severe nuclear accident) of the INES scale, the highest value. Although it is the same level at the Fukushima nuclear accident was classified, the consequences of the Chernobyl accident were still far worse.

The Chernobyl nuclear power plant is located near the town of Prypyat, 18km from the city of Chernobyl.

At the time of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident provided 4 reactors in operation and two more were under construction.

Radionuclide definition

A radioactive nuclide radionuclides or radionuclide is an unstable nuclide and thus degenerates emitting ionizing radiation. Although some physicists sometimes commonly used to designate the palabraradioisótopo however, it should be noted that strict or formal language of physics and nuclear technology is flawed as a nuclide and an isotope are not the same. When a radionuclide emits radiactividadalcanza a more stable state, which requires less energy than before, and generally becomes a different nuclide (or in the same,…

Nuclear waste

Nuclear waste

One of the main problems in the use of nuclear energy is the management of nuclear waste as it is very dangerous and difficult to eliminate.

What is done with nuclear waste?

Nuclear waste is one of the main problems related to nuclear energy. If these wastes are not treated properly, they are highly hazardous to the population and the environment.

Radioactive waste can be classified according to its physical and chemical characteristics and by its activity.

Classifying them by their activity we have:

  • High-level nuclear waste, composed of elements of…

Nuclear energy and the environment

Nuclear energy and the environment

Populritat Although nuclear energy is very low there are applications of nuclear energy for works for the environment.

What is the relationship between nuclear energy and the environment?

To reduce pollution in the environment, we need to know where and how much to find these pollutants, the causes of contaminacióny the right solution to prevent it from spreading.

The main source of pollution is found in human activities contributing largely to the increase in pollutants, growth poblacióny industrial technological developments.

At present, the biggest…

Plutonium

Plutonium

Plutonium is a chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94 which belongs to the actinide series of elements. Plutonium has 16 isotopes, all radioactive. The element is a silvery metal and has 5 different crystal structures.

Chemically plutonium is a very active material. You can form compounds with all nonmetals except the noble gases. The metal dissolves in acidic and reacts with water, but only moderately in comparison with the acid.

While you can find traces in nature, all isotopes of plutonium are of artificial origin.

Radioactivity plutonium

The more…

Nuclear medicine

Nuclear medicine

Nuclear medicine is defined as the branch of medicine that uses radioactive isotopes, nuclear radiation, electromagnetic variations of the components of the atomic nucleus and related biophysical techniques for the prevention, diagnosis, therapy and medical research.

Clinical applications of radiopharmaceuticals cover virtually all medical specialties.

Nuclear medicine is closely related to several basic and applied sciences such as physics, chemistry, electronics, cybernetics and pharmacy, and other branches of medicine and physiology, pathophysiology, radiology and other diagnostic…

Isotopes, what are they?

Isotopes, what are they?

Isotopes are atoms whose nuclei have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons. Not all atoms of the same element are identical and each of these varieties corresponds to a different isotope.

Each isotope of the same element have the same atomic number (Z) but each has a different mass number (A). The atomic number is the number of protons in the atomic nucleus of the atom. The mass number is the sum of neutrons and protons of the core. This means that different isotopes of the same atom differ from each other only by the number of neutrons.

The items that can…

Current situation in Chernobyl

Current situation in Chernobyl

The recovery of the accident area and cleaning products has resulted in a large amount of radioactive waste and contaminated equipment, stored at about 800 different sites inside and outside the 30 km exclusion zone around the nuclear reactor 4 from Chernobyl.

These nuclear wastes are partially stored in containers or buried in trenches, which may lead to a risk of contamination of groundwater.

The sarcophagus and the proliferation of waste storage sites have been assessed as a source of hazardous radioactivity in nearby areas, and some NEA experts feared that the sinking of the…

Tritium - nuclear fuel

Tritium is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen whose nucleus is a proton and two neutrons. The most important application of tritium is use as nuclear fuel for energy production by nuclear fusion.

It is usually designated by the symbol T, although you should symbolize systematically as 3H. It was discovered on 1934 by Rutherford, Oliphant and Harteck in the study of deuteron bombardment of deuterium.

Tritium in the atmosphere occurs at the rate of one atom of hydrogen per 1017, and is continuously formed in the upper atmosphere nuclear reactions induced…

Nuclear power in Mexico

Nuclear power in Mexico

Mexico is rich in hydrocarbon resources and is a net exporter of energy. Country's interest in nuclear energy is based on the need to reduce their dependence on these sources of energy. In recent years, Mexico's energy is increasingly dependent on natural gas.

The energy growth was very rapid in the 1990s, but then stabilized for a few years. Since 2007 expected new growth in demand for electricity to an average rate of almost 6% per year. In 2007, we generated 257 million kWh. Supply Origin is varied electric, gas 126 TWh (49%), oil of 52 TWh (20%), coal 32 TWh (12.5%) and hydroelectric…

History of nuclear energy

History of nuclear energy

To explain the history of nuclear energy we could distinguish three major stages:

  • Physical and chemical scientific studies of the elements.
  • The development of the nuclear bomb during World War II.
  • Use of nuclear energy in the civil field.

Scientific studies cover this whole period since the first Greek philosophers began to define atoms, until the development of the first nuclear bomb. In this process, different scientists discover the presence of electrons, neutrons and protons and properties that make one atom more radioactive than another.

Nuclear power in Chile

Nuclear power in Chile appears for the first time in 1964 with the approach of the project that made Dr. Cruz-Coke.

Chilean Commission of Nuclear Energy

The most important organization is the CCHEN Chile (Chilean Commission of Nuclear Energy) which is responsible for everything that is related to the peaceful use of nuclear energy . (Since nuclear energy was initially used for military purposes).

The CCHEN, has two nuclear reactors for research,…