Nuclear energy began to develop during the first decade of 1940. Initially, the research was aimed at the development and production of the atomic bomb. Subsequently, research began on other applications of nuclear energy; the investigation focused on the peaceful use of nuclear energy.
Currently, there are 30 countries in the world that have nuclear power plants for the generation of electricity. In any case, the number of countries that take advantage of nuclear energy is much greater since countries such as Denmark and Italy, which do not have any nuclear facilities, obtain about…
Nuclear reactors can be classified according to different criteria. One of the criteria is the purpose for which they will be used. In this regard we distinguish the types of nuclear reactors used for civilian purposes, for military purposes or for research purposes.
Civil nuclear reactors use nuclear energy to generate power for electricity; military reactors create materials that can be used in nuclear weapons such as the atomic bomb; and research nuclear reactors used to develop weapons or energy production technology, for development purposes, for nuclear physics…
In 1974 the French government made the decision to rapidly expand the nuclear power production capacity in France just after the first oil crisis. This decision was made in the context of a France with substantial competence in engineering, but with few autochthonous energy resources. Nuclear energy, with the cost of fuel is a relatively small part of the total cost, in this sense a reduction in imports was achieved and greater energy security was achieved.
As a result of the 1974 decision, France currently has a significant level of energy independence and almost the lowest…
A nuclear reactor is a facility capable of initiating, controlling and maintaining nuclear reactions (usually nuclear fission) in chain that occur in the core of this installation.
The composition of the nuclear reactor is formed by the nuclear fuel, the refrigerant, the control elements, the structural materials and, in the case of a nuclear reactor, the nuclear moderator.
To build a nuclear reactor it is necessary to have enough nuclear fuel, which we call critical mass. Having enough critical mass means having enough fissile…
The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident is a series of incidents, including four separate explosions, that took place at the Naraha nuclear power plant in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, following the Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami on March 11. 2011. The Fukushima nuclear facility was a nuclear power plant to convert nuclear energy into electrical energy.
The Fukushima nuclear disaster occurred on March 11, 2011. It is the most serious nuclear accident in history after the Chernobyl nuclear accident.
The accident was caused by an 8.9-degree earthquake near the northwest coast of…
A coolant in a nuclear reactor is a liquid or gaseous substance that passes through the reactor core and removes heat from the nuclear fission reaction.
In the double-circuit power reactors, the reactor coolant enters the steam generator, which produces steam that drives the turbines, and in the single-circuit reactors the coolant (steam or gas) can serve as the working fluid of the cycle of the turbine. In research (for example, materials science) and special reactors (for example, in reactors for the accumulation of radioactive isotopes) the coolant only cools the reactor, the…
Enriched uranium is uranium that has gone through a technological process to increase the proportion of the uranium-235 isotope. As a result, natural uranium is divided into enriched uranium and depleted uranium.
Natural uranium contains three isotopes of uranium: uranium-238 (99.2745%), uranium-235 (0.72%) and uranium-234 (0.0055%). The isotope uranium-238 is a relatively stable isotope, incapable of an independent nuclear chain reaction, unlike the rare uranium-235. Currently, uranium-235 is the main fissile material in the chain reactions of nuclear…
The pressurized water nuclear reactor is the type of nuclear reactor more used worldwide in the nuclear power plants of generation of electricity. At present, there are more than 230 nuclear reactors in the world made with the pressurized water system. Also known by its abbreviations PW. Its main feature is the use of water under high pressure in the primary circuit to prevent it from boiling.
Within the naval engineering the pressurized water nuclear reactor (PWR) is widely used. In fact, this model was originally designed to be used on a nuclear submarine.
Mexico is rich in hydrocarbon resources and is a net exporter of energy. The country's interest in nuclear energy is based on the need to reduce its dependence on these non-renewable energy sources. In recent years, energy in Mexico is increasingly dependent on natural gas.
Energy growth in Mexico was very rapid in the 1990s, but then stabilized for a few years. Since 2007, a new growth in the demand for electric power was expected, up to an average rate of almost 6% per year.
In 2016, Mexico generated 20% of its electric power through clean sources, including…
A boiling water reactor or BWR is a type of nuclear reactor. It is the second type of reactor most used in nuclear power plants in the world. Approximately 22% of the nuclear reactors installed in the different nuclear power plants use the boiling water reactor.
The main function of this type of reactors is their installation in power plants of power for the generation of electricity.
The most important feature of the boiling water reactor (BWR) is the use of pressurized water as a neutron moderator and as a core coolant. Unlike the pressurized water reactor (PWR), it does not…
Nuclear power in India is currently in a state of growth with strong nuclear development plans. By 2020, India has set a target to supply 14,600 MW to the grid through the use of nuclear energy. Subsequently, in 2050, India wants 25% of electricity is produced by nuclear energy.
India is a founding member of the global nuclear watchdog, the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna.
Because of these restrictions on trade and the lack of indigenous uranium, only India has been developing a nuclear fuel cycle to exploit its reserves of thorium.
Plans to boost nuclear power…
Plutonium is a chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94 which belongs to the actinide series of elements. Plutonium has 16 isotopes, all radioactive. The element is a silvery metal and has 5 different crystal structures.
Chemically plutonium is a very active material. You can form compounds with all nonmetals except the noble gases. The metal dissolves in acidic and reacts with water, but only moderately in comparison with the acid.
While you can find traces in nature, all isotopes of plutonium are of artificial origin. Radioactivity plutonium
The Chooz nuclear power plant is a nuclear power plant in Chooz, France. That is, its function is to harness the nuclear energy of nuclear fission reactions to generate electricity. The nuclear power plant is located in a meander of the Maas. Also, the nuclear facility is located on the Pointe de Givet, about 25 km from the Belgian Dinant.
The first of the two nuclear reactors available to the nuclear plant was built in the 1960s with the participation of Belgian industry. In this way, the location near the French-Belgian border is explained in part.
The Chinon nuclear power plant is located in France, near Chinon in the territory of the city of Avoine (Indre-et-Loire) in the Country of Véron. Uses water from the Loire River.
The annual production of the nuclear plant is approximately 24 billion kilowatt-hours per year. This production accounts for approximately 4% of national electricity production in France. 1500 people work in the nuclear power plant. History of the Chinon nuclear power plant
The Chinon nuclear power plant has two different types of nuclear reactors: Gas-graphite reactors
The moderator is a component that is part of nuclear reactors. It is located in the reactor core. The function of the moderator is to reduce the speed of neutrons in nuclear fission reactions.
During fission nuclear reactions, neutrons collide with fissile atoms (uranium and plutonium) present in the nuclear fuel causing fission. With each fission reaction, one or two neutrons are released at high speed.
The objective to maintain a chain fission reaction is that these neutrons hit other fissile atoms but at such a speed it is very difficult. The objective of…
Electricity consumption in Argentina has grown strongly since 1990. Per capita consumption was just over 2000 kWh / year in 2002 and increased to around 3000 kWh / year in 2015. Gross electricity production in 2016 was 147 TWh , with 75 TWh (51%) of natural gas, 38 TWh (26%) of hydropower, 21 TWh (14%) of oil, 3 TWh (2%) of coal, 8 TWh (5% *) of nuclear energy and 10 TWh of net import. The total electric power produced by fossil fuels is 99TWh.
In Argentina, approximately 10% of electricity comes from 3 operational nuclear reactors: the Embalse nuclear power plant, a CANDU reactor,…
Nuclear power in Spain began in 1964 with the start of the construction of three nuclear power plants: the José Carbrera nuclear power plant, the Santa María de Garoña nuclear power plant and the Vandellós nuclear power plant 1.
The first reactor that was built was that of the José Cabrera nuclear power plant, Zorita. The type of nuclear reactor in the plant is a pressurized water reactor. Two years later the construction of the Santa María de Garoña nuclear power plant begins. In this case, a boiling water nuclear reactor…
Nowadays, the main use given to nuclear energy is the generation of electric power. Nuclear power plants are responsible of doing this process. Almost all nuclear power plants in production are using nuclear fission since the nuclear fusion, despite being under development, is currently unfeasible.
The operation of a nuclear power plant is identical to the operation of a thermoelectric power plant working with fossil fuels like coal, oil or gas, except in the way of providing heat to the water for converting this one into steam. In nuclear reactors this process of producing heat is made…
The Bruce Nuclear Generating Station is located in Tiverton, Ontario, Canada. The facility is located in the geographical area of Bruce County, hence its name. It occupies an area of 932 hectares.
The nuclear plant was built in stages between 1970-1987 by the provincial Crown corporation, Ontario Hydro. It was not until May 2001 that the Bruce Nuclear Generating Station began operation. Currently, 3,800 employees work at the plant. Chronology
The initial operating license is 18 years, expiring in 2019, but there is an option to extend up to 25 years until 2044.
Gravelines nuclear power station in France, is the sixth nuclear power plant in the world. In Europe alone Zaporizhia nuclear power plant (in Ukraine) surpasses it.
The nuclear plant is located next to the North Sea near the community of Gravelines in northern France, 20 km from Calais. The surface of the core is 150 hectares.
At the moment of analyzing the disadvantages of nuclear energy in the first place, it is necessary to consider the different areas in which nuclear energy is used. The main use of nuclear energy is the generation of electricity. Although electricity production is the most controversial nuclear application, nuclear technology is also used in the military, medical or environmental fields, among others.
One of the advantages of nuclear energy is that it reduces the dependence on thermal power plants and, therefore, the consumption of fossil fuels. However,…
What is nuclear energy? Nuclear energy is the internal energy in the atomic nucleus, that is, the central part of an atom. Atoms are the smallest particles in which a material can be divided. The nucleus of an atom is composed of two subparticles: neutrons and protons. These subparticles are held together due to energy links. At the moment in which these bonds are modified, a large amount of thermal energy is released in the form of heat.
Nuclear technology deals with the use of this internal energy for a wide variety of applications. The most well-known…
The nuclear accident in Chernobyl (1986) is by far the most serious nuclear accident in the history of nuclear energy. It was classified as level 7 (severe nuclear accident) of the INES scale, the highest value. Although it is the same level at the Fukushima nuclear accident was classified, the consequences of the Chernobyl accident were still far worse.
The Chernobyl nuclear power plant is located near the town of Prypyat, 18km from the city of Chernobyl.
At the time of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident provided 4 reactors in operation and two more were under construction.…
The Browns Ferry nuclear power plant (born as a Browns Ferry nuclear plant) is a functioning nuclear power plant in the southeastern United States.
The station is located on the shores of Lake Wheeler in the Tennessee River Basin in Limestone County, Alabama, 35 miles west of the city of Huntsville. Unit 1 of the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant
Unit 1 is a 1101 megawatt electric BWR / 4 network built by General Electric. Construction began in Unit 1 on September 12, 1966 and was originally started online on December 20, 1973. It was authorized to operate until December…
The Bugey nuclear power plant is a facility generating electricity consists of 5 nuclear reactors. 4 delos plant reactors are still in operation. The reactor of Unit 1 was closed on 27 May 1994 and currently is in the process of dismantling.
The nuclear plant is located in Bugey, France in Saint-Vulbas community, 65 km from the border of Switzerland. The plant was built…
A gas reactor or GCR (English gas cooled reactor) is a type of nuclear nuclear reactor of nuclear fission. The neutron moderator of this type of nuclear reactor is graphite. The coolant of the nuclear gas reactor is carbon dioxide in the gaseous state. According to the classification made by the International Atomic Energy Agency of the United Nations, IAEA, this type of reactors includes those of the AGR type (of the English Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor) and Magnox (of the English Magnesium Non-OXidising), both of British technology.
Within the history of nuclear energy there was also…
To explain the history of nuclear energy we could distinguish three major stages:
- Physical and chemical scientific studies of the elements.
- The development of the nuclear bomb during World War II.
- Use of nuclear energy in the civil field.
Scientific studies cover this whole period since the first Greek philosophers began to define atoms, until the development of the first nuclear bomb. In this process, different scientists discover the presence of electrons, neutrons and protons and properties that make one atom more radioactive than another.…
In this section we analyze the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear energy. Nevertheless, most organizations related to nuclear energy are already positioned for or against the use of nuclear energy. On this site we try to make an objective analysis about this question, giving all the relevant information and offering a space for different conclusions.
The advantages and disadvantages of nuclear energy have made this alternative energy source one of the most controversial on the market today. Understanding the pros and cons of this energy source can help…
The Bohunice nuclear power plant (also known by its acronym in Slovak EBO: Atómové elektrárne Bohunice) is a 4 nuclear reactors. It is in Slovakia to two and a half Jaslovské Bohunice quilometros and a pubeldo Trnavaen district.
The Bohunice includes two plants: V1 and V2. These two nuclear plants each comprising two nuclear reactors, which, in total there are 4 reactors installation.
The Blayais Nuclear Power Plant is a nuclear power plant for generating electricity.
The nuclear facility consists of 4 reactors of low pressure water 900MW each which were put into service between 1981 and 1983.
The nuclear power plant is located in France, near the town of Blaye, on the edge of the Gironde estuary between Bordeaux and Royan. For cooling the reactor estuarine water is used.
The Beaver Valley nuclear power plant is a nuclear power plant that produces electricity on the Ohio River in the city of Shippingport, in the county of Beaver, in the western corner of Pennsylvania, USA. The last two nuclear reactors of the nuclear power plant were approved for commissioning in 1975 and 1986, while the previous 1957 Atomic Energy Station for Vessels was permanently closed in 1982. The original work was the first power plant nuclear in the United States.
The two facilities are located in the same place on the Ohio River. The maximum installed power in the current plant…
The Cattenom nuclear power plant is a nuclear power plant located in France. It is currently operated by Electricité de France (EDF). Geographically it is located in Lorraine, in the city of Cattenom, on the banks of the Moselle between Thionville and Trier. The cities of Luxembourg, Arlon, and Metz are very close to the nuclear power plant.
Luxembourg, the Saarland and Belgium demanded the closure of the plant. Despite this, there is a project underway to extend its useful life until the year 2025. Characteristics of the Cattenom nuclear power plant…
Nuclear fission is the physical-chemical reaction through which the nucleus of an atom is split. In the main interest of the fission reactions is that by this operation a large amount of energy is obtained. Nuclear energy is the energy contained in the nucleus of an atom and the energy that is obtained is thermal energy, energy in the form of heat.
The other form of exploitation is through nuclear fusion reactions. In this case, the process is inverse, fusing two different nuclei forming a single atomic nucleus.
After the fission of the atomic nucleus we obtain…
The Braidwood nuclear power plant is a nuclear power plant that produces electricity in the county of Will, south of Chicago, in the state of Illinois, in the center of the United States. Its reactors were approved for commissioning in July 1988 and October 1988, respectively. The maximum installed power is 2330 megawatts. The annual production in 2007 was approximately 19.66 TWh of electricity.
The plant is owned by Exelon Corporation. It has a total of two reactors that are in operation, each with a maximum of approx. 1 125 MW of power. The net production in the plant is normally only…
The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Fukushima nuclear plant or one (Dai-ichi means "number one" in Japanese) is composed of six nuclear reactor nuclear boiling water (BWR). The plant is located in the city of ÅŒkuma (Fukushima Prefecture, Japan). Uses sea water for cooling.
Located just twelve kilometers from another great power, the Fukushima Daini nuclear plant, Fukushima or II, with four reactors.
The Callaway nuclear power plant is a nuclear power facility for the generation of electricity. This nuclear power plant operates in the central part of the United States. The nuclear facility is located in Calloway County, Missouri.
The Callaway nuclear power plant was launched in December 1984. The plant's only nuclear reactor has a capacity of 1,236 megawatts (MW). The nuclear reactor is a nuclear PWR pressurized water reactor manufactured by Westinghouse. The current reactor provides 19% of Missouri's electricity needs.
The power plant is operated by Amerenue. The plant was…
Byron's nuclear power plant is a nuclear power plant that produces electrical power in Ogle County west of Chicago and 27 km southwest of the city of Rockford, Illinois, in the state of Illinois, in the center from United States. It was approved for launch in 1985 and 1987 respectively. The maximum installed power is 2 300 - 2 356 megawatts MW.
The annual production in 2007 was approximately 18.85 TWh of electric power.
The nuclear facility has two Babcock and Wilcox pressurized water nuclear reactors, unit 1 and unit 2, which started operating in September 1985 and August 1987…
The Brunswick nuclear power plant is a nuclear power plant that produces electricity in the Atlantic Ocean, just north of the city of Southport in Brunswick County on the south coast of the state of North Carolina in the United States. The last two reactors of the nuclear power plant were approved for commissioning in 1975 and 1977. The maximum installed power is 1,875 MW, and the annual production in 2007 was approximately 15.02 TWh of power.
The plant is owned by Progress Energy. It has a total of two reactors that are in operation, each with an average maximum power of 933 megawatts.…