On Nuclear Energy sitemap we explain the most important elements related to nuclear energy. The intention of its authors is to give general information about everything that surrounds this technology and a review of the related physics aspects. If you haven't found what you were looking for on the web, here is a list of all the pages we have published.
Web Map - List of All the Articles on the Web Page
- What Is the Nuclear Energy
Nuclear energy is the energy that holds the nucleus of an atom together. It can be obtained through fission and fusion reactions of the nucleus of an atom.
- Nuclear Fision
Nuclear fission is a method of obtaining energy through a nuclear reaction that is based on the partition of the nucleus of an atom. Uranium or plutonium is generally used.
Nuclear fusion is a reaction of union of two atoms with a significant exchange of energy. The Sun's energy comes from fusion.
- Requirements for Nuclear Fusion
Atoms of a nuclear fusion reaction must overcome an important barrier barrier of electrostatic forces. If two nuclei can get close enough, the repulsion can be overcome by the quantum effect.
The ITER nuclear fusion reactor is a scientific experiment aimed at testing the feasibility of nuclear fusion as a source of energy.
Plasma is a state of matter similar to the gaseous state but in which a certain proportion of its particles are electrically charged.
Radioactivity is a phenomenon in which certain substances spontaneously transform into different atoms losing energy.
- Ionizing Radiation
Ionizing radiation is made up of photons or particles that, when interacting with matter, produce ions, whether they do so directly or indirectly.
Sievert is a measure of the effect on health of the low levels of ionizing radiation in the human body.
A radionuclide is an unstable nuclide and, therefore, degenerates by emitting ionizing radiation. Types and uses of radioisotopes.
An alpha particle is a positively charged particle emitted by various radioactive materials during decomposition. It consists of two neutrons and two protons.
A beta particle (β) is an electron that is shot out as a result of a radioactive event. Types of disintegration and effects on health.
Gamma radiation is a form of electromagnetic radiation. Among the different types of radiation, it is one of the most dangerous for health.
Electromagnetic radiation is a disturbance of an electric field and a magnetic field that propagates in space. Discover the types and characteristics.
Radioactivity was discovered by Becquerel almost occasionally when conducting research on fluorescence. Becquerel discovered that uranium spontaneously emitted mysterious radiation.
We compare the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear energy. We analyze the ecological, technical, economic, and safety aspects.
- Benefits of Nuclear Energy
We analyze the benefits of this energy source comparing it with that of fossil fuels and renewable energies.
The use of nuclear energy has significant drawbacks to take into account in aspects such as safety, waste and energy dependence.
History of nuclear energy. From the discovery of the atom to the first nuclear power reactors.
- Discovery of Radioactivity
The discoverer of radioactivity was Becquerel by chance. His work together with that of the Curies allowed to discover artificial radioactivity.
- Antoine-henri Becquerel
Antoine-Henri Becquerel, short biography of the discoverer of natural radioactivity. Born in Paris, he was a Nobel laureate in physics in 1903.
The Manhattan Project was a project to develop the atomic bomb in the United States during World War II.
- Albert Einstein's Biography
Albert Einstein was a German physicist, author of the theory of relativity. He played a fundamental role in the investigation of nuclear energy especially during World War II.
After the Second World War, a debate about the future of nuclear energy and the control of atomic weapons begins. This was the beginning of the nuclear non-proliferation treaty.
The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty is an international treaty on nuclear weapons based on three principles: disarmament, non-proliferation and peaceful use of nuclear energy.
Radioactive waste is any material derived from the use of nuclear energy with non-reusable radioactive isotopes.
- Radioactive Material
Radioactive material is material that contains radioactive particles. The most important radioactive substances are obtained from the applications of nuclear energy.
Nuclear waste management is the actions that lead to its reuse, disappearance or neutralization and evacuation to suitable places.
The transport of radioactive waste must be carried out with an exhaustive control to avoid the dangers of a possible nuclear accident during the process.
Discover how the storage of low, medium and high level nuclear waste is managed.
The atom is a smaller structure of matter. It is made up of neutrons, protons in the nucleus, and electrons in the crust.
- Atomic Models
An atomic model is the definition of the structure of an atom. Throughout history these models have evolved to the current model.
- Democritus Atom Model
The atomic model of Democritus was the first model of philosophical atomism to try to explain the constitution of materials.
Dalton's atomic model is the first scientific atomic theory. His theory was the basis of current atomic theory.
Description of Thomson atomic model. Basis and drawbacks of this atomic theory. What was new about Dalton's and what were its limitations?
The Nagaoka atomic model was proposed by the Japanese physicist denying Thomson's previous model. Ruthenford used it to develop his atomic model.
Rutherford's atomic model is an atomic theory formulated in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford that replaced the atomic model proposed by Thomson.
In Bohr's atomic model, electrons rotate in circular orbits around the nucleus, occupying the lowest possible energy orbit, or the closest possible orbit to the nucleus.
Sommerfeld's atomic model is an extension to the Bohr model. In this model, electrons can describe elliptical orbits.
Schrödinger's atomic model or quantum mechanical model of the atom determines the probability of finding the electron of an atom at a point.
The atom is made up of three types of subatomic particles: the proton and the neutron that make up the nucleus and the electrons, which move around.
- Subatomic Particles
A subatomic particle is a particle smaller than the atom. The atomic particles that make up an atom are protons, neutrons, and electrons.
The atomic nucleus is the small central part of the atom, with a positive electric charge and in which most of the mass of the atom is concentrated.
A neutron is a subatomic particle contained in the atomic nucleus. It has no electric charge and its function is to unite the nucleus.
A proton is a positively charged particle found inside the atomic nucleus. The number of protons that make up an atom is the atomic number.
What is an electron. What relationship does it have with atoms? Importance that it has in the electric current. Story about how it was discovered. Basic physical properties of the electron.
Atomic models are scientific theories about the nature of matter. According to the atomic theory, matter is made up of atoms.
Isotopes are atoms of the same element but with different numbers of netrons. Examples to know what they are for.
An ion is an atom or molecule that does not have a neutral electric charge. When an atom produces or acquires one or more electrons, it is transformed into an ion.
The atomic number is the number of protons (positive charges) in the nucleus of an atom. It is expressed by the letter Z.
The atomic mass of an atom is the weighted average mass of all isotopes of that same element that exist in nature.
The mass number of an atom is the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in its atomic nucleus.
A nuclear power plant is a facility for obtaining electrical energy using nuclear energy. The nuclear reactor is responsible for generating fission chain reactions.
- How Does a Nuclear Power Plant Work
Operation of a nuclear power plant. How electricity is generated from nuclear energy. Basic diagram of the most common type of plant in the world.
A nuclear reactor is an installation capable of initiating, controlling and maintaining nuclear reactions. It can have different uses, for example, the production of electricity.
- Types of Nuclear Reactors
Nuclear reactors can be classified depending on their performance but also according to their purpose or other technical characteristics.
- Pressurized Water Reactor
Pressurized water nuclear reactors (PWR) is a type of reactor most popular in the world. Main characteristics of operation.
The boiling water reactor is the second most widely used nuclear reactor in the world. Discover how it works and its main characteristics.
A gas-cooled reactor (GCR) is a nuclear reactor that uses graphite as a neutron moderator and carbon anhydride as a coolant.
Nuclear reactor control rods allow controlling the power of a nuclear reactor by increasing or reducing the number of nuclear reactions.
A coolant in a nuclear reactor is a liquid or gaseous substance that passes through the reactor core and removes the heat from the nuclear fission reaction.
The nuclear moderator is an element to reduce the speed of neutrons in a nuclear fission chain reaction.
A steam turbine is a device that transforms the thermal energy of steam into mechanical energy.
Nuclear fuel is the material used for the generation of nuclear energy. What is the nuclear fuel cycle?
Physical aspects that make uranium the most used nuclear fuel in nuclear fission reactions.
- Enriched Uranium
Enriched uranium is uranium that has undergone a technological process to increase the proportion of the isotope uranium-235.
Natural uranium refers to uranium resources in nature and is the basis for obtaining nuclear fuel. Origin of this resource. Differences with enriched uranium.
Plutonium is an artificial radioactive chemical element generated in nuclear reactors that can be used at the same time as a nuclear fuel.
Deuterium and tritium are two radioactive isotopes of hydrogen. They are used as nuclear fuel to obtain energy through nuclear fusion.
Situation and brief description of nuclear power plants in the world
According to the EIA, there are a total of 93 operating nuclear reactors in the United States at 56 nuclear power plants located in 28 states.
Canada has 18 nuclear reactors operating in the country, principally located in Ontario. All of them use CANDU reactors, a type of reactor designed in Canada.
After the Fukushima nuclear accident, Japan has focused its energy policy on diversifying energy sources and reducing its dependence on nuclear energy.
The development of nuclear energy in Mexico. The construction of the first nuclear plants and prospects for the future.
Argentina is one of the countries that have opted for nuclear energy. It currently has three nuclear reactors for the production of electrical energy.
Perspectives India has become a world leader in nuclear technology. Your goal is to reach 25% of electricity by nuclear power in 2050.
Situation of nuclear energy in Spain. Evolution of the construction of nuclear power plants and future plan for the closure of the plants.
- Nuclear Moratorium
The nuclear moratorium meant the blocking of 5 nuclear power plant projects of the 7 that had been approved in Spain.
France ranks first in the world in nuclear energy production by population density. There are currently 19 nuclear power plants operating with 58 nuclear reactors.
Ukraine has four nuclear power plants with a total of 15 nuclear reactors that generate 50% of Ukraine's electricity generation.
Situation of nuclear energy in Chile. Development of nuclear energy in Chile and its evolution over time.
Nuclear energy in Brazil provides 3% of the country's electricity production. It has two nuclear power plants in operation Angra 1 and 2.
Italy closed all its nuclear facilities as a result of a referendum in 1988. However, in 2009 it reached an agreement with France for the construction of 4 new nuclear power plants.
Russia is one of the world's leading nuclear power producers. About 20% of the energy consumed in Russia comes from its nuclear power plants.
17% of the UK's energy is generated through its nuclear plants. Currently the largest plant is the Sizewell B Nuclear Power Plant.
South Korea has 24 operating nuclear reactors that generated about 30% of the country's electricity with plans to build more reactors.
China has the largest number of nuclear reactors under construction in the world and is the third country with the largest installed nuclear power capacity.
After the Fukishima accident, Germany adopted the energy policy of shutting down all nuclear power plants. This plan will be completed during 2023.
What are nuclear accidents? The worst nuclear disasters in history ranked by their severity.
- Chernobyl, USSR
The Chernobyl nuclear accident is the most serious accident in history. Analysis of the causes and consequences of the tragedy.
- Effects of the Accident
We analyze the health, environmental, technical and political effects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident.
The Chernobyl nuclear accident was the worst nuclear disaster. The radiation released reached unthinkable levels polluted several countries around it.
After mor then 30 years of the disaster, what is the aspect of Chernobyl today? Current radiation, images to ha abandoned buildings and confinement tasks.
The Fukushima nuclear accident was caused by the sequence of an earthquake and a tsunami off the coast of Japan. It was the second most serious accident.
The Kyshtym disaster (Mayak, Russia), occurs in the attempt to develop the atomic bomb. It is the third most serious behind those of Chernobyl and Fukushima.
The Three Mile Island (Pennsylvania) accident was the worst nuclear accident in US history. A historical marker was put in place to commemorate it.
The Chalk River laboratories of Canada suffered two serious nuclear accidents in their research reactor during the years 1952-1958.
- Chalk River Laboratories
Chalk River Laboratories is a Canadian facility dedicated to the investigation of nuclear reactions located in Ontario, Canada.
The nuclear power plant in Saint-Laurent-des-Eaux (France) suffered two level 4 nuclear accidents on the INES scale in 1969 and 1980.
The radioactive contamination in Goiania (Brazil) was a case of radioactive infection. Causes and consequences of the Goiania nuclear accident.
The nuclear accident at the Tokaimura nuclear fuel treatment plant (Japan). We analyze the causes and consequences of the nuclear disaster that occurred in Japan in 1999.
- Causes and Consequences
In 1999 Japan suffered a significant nuclear accident in Tokai-mura (Ibaraki). What caused the accident? Which consequences did it have?
Hisashi Ouchi is the person who has received the highest dose of radioactivity in the world as a result of the Tokaimura nuclear accident.
Kramatorsk radiological accident was due to a radioactive exposure of residents of one of the prefabricated buildings in Kramatorsk, Ukrania.
The INES scale is used to report on the importance of nuclear and radiological events from a safety point of view.
The main use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes is the production of electrical energy. However, it is also used in many other sectors.
- Nuclear Weapons
Nuclear weapons are weapons using nuclear technology. List of countries having nuclear weapons, treaties and types of weapons.
- Atomic Bomb
The atomic bomb is a weapon of mass destruction based on the properties of nuclear energy. Types of pumps and operation.
The Nautilus is the world's first nuclear submarine. It was the first submarine to reach the North Pole, in 1958. In 1980 it became a Museum.
Nuclear energy is used in modern industry in developed countries for process improvement, measurement, process automation, and quality control.
Nuclear medicine is a branch of medicine that uses radiochemical methods to diagnose, treat, and investigate disease.
Radiodiagnosis is a branch of medicine for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases that uses radiation to obtain images of the interior of the body.
Radiotherapy is a specialty of nuclear medicine that uses ionizing radiation to treat malignant tumors.
Teletherapy, teleradiotherapie or long-distance irradiation, including external percutaneous irradiation, is the most common form of radiotherapy in nuclear medicine.
In nuclear medicine, a certain radionuclide is administered to the patient, with the aim of investigating a specific physiological phenomenon.
A nuclear stress test is a test that allows doctors to see images of your heart using a radioactive dye.
Within nuclear energy there are those that allow us to work for the improvement of the environment. Control of pests, water, food quality.
Currently, 11% of the world's energy is generated through nuclear energy—a list of countries over the world that are using this technology.
Energy is the ability of a physical system to do work. Definition and meaning of the different concepts of energy.
- Types of Energy
Description of the different forms of energy with examples. Classification by its nature and by its origin giving a clear description of the most significant ones.
Thermal energy is the result of the movement of particles called molecules and atoms. It can be transmitted by radiation, conduction, and convection in form of heat.
Atomic energy is the energy that holds together neutrons and protons in the nuclei of atoms. Operation of an atomic power station.
Kinetic energy is the energy contained in a body due to being in motion. Kinetic energy can be lineal or rotational.
The mechanical energy of a body is the sum of its energies, kinetic and potential. It is related to the movement of bodies and mechanical forces.
Discover different examples related to mechanical energy and the principle of conservation of energy.
Potential energy is the energy that an object possesses due to its position in a force field or that a system has due to the configuration of its parts
- Types of Potential Energy
The potential energy of a body can manifest itself in different ways. We describe the types of potential energy with examples.
Electric potential energy is the potential energy caused by an electrostatic field on a point charge.
Chemical energy is the energy that comes from the chemical change of a substance through a chemical reaction or, from being transformed into other substances.
- Modern Periodic Table
The modern periodic table of elements is a table containing all the known chemical elements in a scientifically ordered way.
A chemical element is a pure substance with certain physical and chemical properties. They are distinguished from each other by the electrical charge in the atomic nucleus.
Calcium is a chemical element with the symbol Ca and atomic number 20. It is a silvery-white alkaline earth metal.
- Atomic Mass of Calcium
The atomic mass of all the Calcium isotopes, and the atomic weight. Properties and characteristics of Calcium.
Molar mass is the ratio of the amount of substance to its mass. We explain its definition with some examples and the difference with molecular mass.
What a molecule consists of, description of the different types of molecular structures and ways to represent them with examples.
- Lewis Structure
Lewis structures are a way of representing the molecular structure of a compound. They are also known as Lewis diagrams or models.
The fundamental laws of chemistry are those laws of nature relevant to chemistry include ponderal laws, steichiometric laws, and others.
- Law of Definite Proportions
Proust's law states that if two or more chemical elements combine to form a compound they do so in a constant mass ratio.
The law of multiple proportions is one of the weight laws of chemistry. It is also known as Dalton's law, which was the one who announced it.
Electric energy is the difference in potential between two points. Electric energy is of vital importance, among others, it allows the transport of electricity.
- Examples of Electrical Energy
Electric energy is used in multiple fields and activities. In this article we list some practical examples in which this energy is used.
An electromagnet is an example of the use of electrical energy. The electric charge that passes through a conductor generates a magnetic field and the properties of a magnet.
An electric fireplace is a decorative element for the home that simulates a conventional wood fireplace. Discover how they are and how they work.
Electric heating is a system to generate heat in a space using electrical energy.
Electrical energy is easy to transport and can be generated from many energy sources. However, it presents risks to human health.
Electric power has been one of the technologies that has evolved the most in the last two hundred years. We analyze the causes and consequences.
Know how electricity is generated. Differences between the different forms of electricity generation. Nuclear energy, thermal power plants and renewable energies.
- Electric Generator
An electric generator is a machine capable of transforming some type of energy, which can be chemical, mechanical or light, into electricity.
Power plants are facilities to transform some type of energy into electricity. Types of plants and operation.
Renewable energies use an energy source considered inexhaustible or easily regenerable. The main ones: solar, wind, hydraulic, tidal, biomass and geothermal.
Non-renewable energies are energies generated from non-renewable resources. Examples of non-renewable resources.
The watt is the unit to express any type of power. One watt (W) equals the energy transferred of one joule (J) per second (s).
A clean energy is an energy source in which polluting elements are not generated. Characteristics and examples.
Electromagnetic field energy is the energy stored in a certain region of space by the electromagnetic field.
The law of conservation of energy states that, although energy can be converted from one form to another, the total amount of it in an isolated system does not change over time.
Physics is a science that studies the properties of matter, energy, space-time and their interactions, considering only the attributes that can be measured.
Kinematics studies the movement of objects without taking into account the causes that produce it or the effects that they generate.
Velocity in physics is the magnitude that determines the variation of the position of an object per unit of time. Definition and formula of linear and angular velocity.
In kinematics, acceleration is a vectorial magnitude that indicates the variation of the speed of an object per unit of time.
Uniform rectilinear motion is a type of motion in which a body moves in a straight line at a constant speed.
Dynamics is the science that studies the relationship between the forces acting on objects and the effects of this action action.
A force is a magnitude that quantifies the capacity of an action to modify the movement and shape of an object.
Pressure is the physical quantity that measures the force exerted on a unit of surface applied in a direction perpendicular to it.
- Atmospheric Pressure
Atmospheric pressure (or barometric pressure) is the pressure exerted by the atmosphere on the earth's surface.
Newton's laws are three physical physical laws that relate the forces that act on a body and the movement of that body.
- Newton's First Law
Newton's first law states that it only changes speed if external forces are applied to it. Explanation with examples of the law of inertia.
Newton's second law states that if we apply a force on an object, the object will experience an acceleration directly proportional to the force.
Newton's third law states that if a force is exerted on a body a, the body a will respond with another reaction force of equal magnitude and opposite direction.
Fluid mechanics is the branch of physics that studies the interactions that occur in a fluid at rest or in motion.
A fluid is a form in which matter can be found. Physically it does not have a defined shape and adapts to the container that contains it.
Fluid mechanics is applied in a large number of examples in our day to day. In this article we explain seven examples of applications.
- Hot Air Balloons
Hot air balloons are aircraft that float in the air. Most of them are made of hot air and are sustained in the air thanks to Archimedes' law.
A hydraulic power press machine is an example of fluid mechanics in which a force can be increased thanks to Pascal's principle.
A hydraulic jack is a tool that uses fluid mechanics to lift heavy loads using Pascal's principle.
Archimedes' principle is used in fluid mechanics to obtain volumes, calculate densities and forces.
Pascal's principle is a law of fluid mechanics that states that pressure in a fluid is transmitted to all points in the fluid with the same intensity.
Torricelli's law states that the speed of water exit through a hole in a container. Relationship with the force of gravity, experiment, and examples.
Bernoulli's principle says that the sum of the static pressure, dynamic pressure, and velocity pressure in a fluid is constant along a flow line.
Gas laws are laws that describe the behavior of gases when within a closed system.
- Gay-lussac's Law
Gay-Lussac's law is one of the gas laws that relates the pressure of a gas to temperature at constant volume.
Avogadro's law is one of the fundamental gas laws that establishes the relationship between the volume and the quantity (moles) of a gas.
The properties of materials indicate the observable and measurable characteristics of a substance.
In physics and chemistry, density is a scalar quantity that indicates the mass per unit volume of a substance.
- Desnity of Water
The density of water depends on many factors, such as temperature or salinity. At which temperature is its maximum, and how to calculate the density.
Olive oil is a liquid substance of vegetable origin that is slightly less dense than water. Discover what its density depends on and how it is obtained.
Viscosity is the resistance of a liquid to flow. It is important in industrial processes and in fluid mechanics.
Thermodynamics is the branch of classical physics that studies the thermodynamic transformations induced by heat and work in a system.
- Temperature Sensor
A temperature sensor is a device that measures temperature through electrical signals. Find out what they are used for and what type they can be.
Blog about nuclear energy. Find here interesting articles, opinions and studies that help you better understand the world of nuclear energy.
- Scientific Method
The scientific method is a system of principles and steps to reach knowledge during a scientific investigation.
Roman numerals is a type of notation used in ancient Rome to express numerical values using letters of the Latin alphabet.
Find out why nuclear energy is considered a non-renewable source. Why is it different from fossil fuels?
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Find out what nuclear plants are for, how they work, and what are their main advantages and risks.