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Gamma Rays

Gamma Rays

In nuclear physics, gamma rays, often indicated by the corresponding lowercase Greek letter γ, are the electromagnetic radiation produced by the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.

They are of very high frequency radiation and are among the most dangerous for humans, as are all ionizing radiation. The danger derives from the fact that they are high-energy waves capable of irreparably damaging the molecules that make up the cells, which leads them to develop genetic mutations or even death.

On Earth we can observe natural sources of gamma rays both in the decay of radionuclides and in the interactions of cosmic rays with the atmosphere; more rarely the rays also…

Last review: October 24, 2019

Tritium

Tritium

Tritium is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen whose nucleus consists of a proton and two neutrons. The most important application of tritium is its use as a nuclear fuel for obtaining energy through nuclear fusion.

It is usually designated by the symbol T, although systematically it should be symbolized as 3H. It was discovered in 1934 by Rutherford, Oliphant and Harteck in the study of the bombardment of deuterium with deuterons.

Tritium is generated in the atmosphere in proportion to one atom for every 1017 of hydrogen, and is continuously formed to the upper atmosphere in nuclear reactions induced by cosmic rays. This isotope can be…

Last review: October 23, 2019

Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein was a German physicist in Ulm, March 14, 1879 and died in Princeton, New Jersey, April 18, 1955.

In 1900, Einstein obtained Swiss nationality and in 1940 the American passport. Einstein was educated in Munich and in Switzerland, he received his doctorate in 1905 in Zurich. He studied music as a notable violin performer. In 1909 he found a place in teaching at the University of Zurich (during the years 1902-09 Albert Einstein was employed by a Bern patent office); in 1911 he went to Prague, in 1912 at the polytechnic school in Zurich, and in 1913 at the University of Berlin; He directed the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Physics and was a member…

Last review: October 21, 2019

Nuclear Fusion

Nuclear Fusion

Nuclear fusion is a nuclear reaction through which two light nuclei of atoms, usually hydrogen and its isotopes (deuterium and tritium), are combined forming a heavier nucleus. This binding is usually accompanied by the emission of particles (in case of deuterium nuclei one neutron is emitted). This nuclear fusion reaction releases or absorbs a lot of energy in the form of gamma rays and kinetic energy of the emitted particles.This large amount of energy transforms matter to a plasma state.

The nuclear fusion reactions can emit or absorb energy. If the cores to merge have a lower mass than iron, energy is released. Conversely,…

Last review: October 20, 2019

Nonrenewable Energy

Nonrenewable Energy

Non-renewable energies are energies generated from non-renewable resources; a group of resources that cannot be restored once used. These resources mainly include fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas), nuclear fuels and biofuels.

Unlike non-renewable resources, we have renewable energies that include: solar energy, wind energy, hydraulic energy as the most prominent.

Fossil energy and fossil fuels

Resources such as coal, oil and natural gas take several thousand years to form and cannot be replaced as quickly as they are used today. It is believed that fossil-based resources will be too expensive to process, that humans will have to resort to other sources…

Last review: October 15, 2019

What is Nuclear Energy?

What is Nuclear Energy?

What is nuclear energy? A common nuclear energy definition that is frequently given: nuclear energy is the internal energy in the atomic nucleus, that is the central part of an atom. Atoms are the smallest particles in which a material can be divided. The nucleus of an atom is composed of two subparticles: neutrons and protons. These subparticles are held together due to energy links. At the moment in which these bonds are modified, a large amount of thermal energy is released in the form of heat.

Nuclear technology deals with the use of this internal energy for a wide variety of applications. The most well-known use of nuclear energy is the generation of electric…

Last review: October 11, 2019

Nuclear Accidents

Nuclear Accidents

In nuclear energy, we refer to nuclear accident to those incidents that emit a certain level of radiation, which could harm public health. To determine the severity of an accident, an International Nuclear Event Scale (better known by its acronym INES) has been established.

Nuclear accidents are classified as nuclear accidents and incidents depending on the severity´s level. In this classification nuclear accidents and radioactive accidents are included. To understand the difference between these two types of accidents, a nuclear accident could be the failure of a reactor of a nuclear power plant and a radiation accident could be when pouring a radiation source to a…

Last review: October 9, 2019

Doel Nuclear Power Station - 3

Doel Nuclear Power Station - 3

The Doel nuclear power plant (in Dutch: Kerncentrale Doel) is in the territory of Doel (the municipality of Beveren), on the left bank of the Scheldt in Belgium. It is located 25 km north of Antwerp, 42 km north-west of Brussels and 136 km south-southeast of Amsterdam (line all distances).

The nuclear power plant is operated by Electrabel operator. Has a layout of four pressurized water reactors (PWR) Westinghouse (Doel 1, 2 and 3) and Framatome / AREVA (Doel 4)

  • Doel 1 412 MWe, commissioned in 1974 for 40 years.
  • Doel. 2: 454 MWe, put into service in 1975 for 40 years.
  • Doel 3: 1056 MWe, commissioned in 1982 for 40 years.
  • Doel 4: 1 041 MWe, commissioned…

    Last review: October 3, 2019

Atomic bomb

Atomic bomb

One of the uses of nuclear energy is developed in the military and arms industry. One of these military uses is the development of the atomic bomb with a much greater devastation capacity than with any other type of bomb.

The atomic bomb is a weapon of mass destruction, so the international community limits and sanctions the production of such weapons with the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. The explosive energy of the atomic bombs is measured by comparison with that emitted by a mass of one million tons of TNT (megaton).

Atomic bomb operation 

The operation of the atomic bomb is based on a process of dividing the atomic nucleus of a heavy element, called…

Last review: September 17, 2019

Ion

Ion

In physics and chemistry, an ion is an atom or molecule that does not have a neutral electrical charge. An ion with a positive electric charge is called cation, and an ion with a negative electric charge is anion.

The process of gaining or losing electrons (with respect to the neutral atom or molecule) is called ionization. Cations and anions are usually represented with the corresponding atom symbol and the "+" or "-" symbol, respectively. If the number of electrons won or lost is greater than one, this is also indicated.

The cations and anions are attracted to the cathode and anode, respectively.

Michael Faraday was the first to propose the existence…

Last review: August 29, 2019

Three Mile Island nuclear power plant, USA

Three Mile Island nuclear power plant, USA

The Three Mile Island nuclear power plant is Troba a l'Illa to the Susquehanna river to the county of Dauphin to Pennsylvania, a deu quilometres to the south-east of Harrisburg ALS Estats Units.

On March 28, 1979, collapse 1 collapse to nuclear reactor number 2, which will be destroyed. Three Mile Island is AIXI IUD because it is Troba to three thousand riu avall from Middletown, Pennsylvania. The nuclear plant will be built originally by General Public Utilities Corporation, later on, with the nou nom of GPU Incorporated.

L'accident is going to classify in level 5 of the INES scale and it will be the nuclear accident most important dins dels Estats Units. After…

Last review: May 2, 2019