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What is an isotope?

What is an isotope?

Isotopes are atoms whose atomic nuclei have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons. Not all atoms of the same element are identical and each of these varieties corresponds to a different isotope.

Each isotope of the same element has the same atomic number (Z) but each has a different mass number (A). The atomic number corresponds to the number of protons in the atomic nucleus of the atom. The mass number corresponds to the sum of neutrons and protons in the nucleus. This means that the different isotopes of the same atom differ from each other only by the number of neutrons.

Last review: March 27, 2020

What is an ion?

What is an ion?

In physics and chemistry, an ion is an atom or molecule that does not have a neutral electric charge. Cation is called a positively charged ion, and anion a negatively charged ion.

The process of gaining or losing electrons (relative to the neutral atom or molecule) is called ionization. Cations and anions are usually represented with the corresponding atom symbol and the "+" or "-" symbol, respectively. If the number of electrons gained or lost is greater than one, this is also indicated.

The cations and anions are attracted to the cathode and the anode, respectively.

Ions are divided into monoatomic and polyatomic.

Michael Faraday was the first to propose the…

Last review: March 26, 2020

Ionizing radiation

Ionizing radiation

An ionizing radiation is that radiation formed by photons or particles that, when interacting with matter, produce ions, whether they do so directly or indirectly.

Examples of ionizing electromagnetic radiation:

  • The highest energy ultraviolet rays.
  • X-rays and gamma rays. 
  • Examples of corpuscular ionizing radiation:

  • Alpha radioactivity.
  • The beta decay.
  • Visible light and infrared rays are not ionizing radiation, nor are radio radio waves.

    These radiations were discovered by Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen in 1895. Since then, they have been used in medical and industrial applications. Despite the variety…

    Last review: March 21, 2020

    Trillo II nuclear power plant, Spain

    The Trillo located in the municipality of Trillo (Guadalajara). It was inaugurated in 1987 is today the most modern nuclear power plant in Spain for the production of electricity.

    Subsequently screened a second nuclear plant in the municipality of Trillo but the project was stalled due to the nuclear moratorium.

    Last review: March 15, 2020

    What is energy?

    What is energy?

    Definition of energy: Energy is the active power of an organism, ability to act, to produce an effect. Energy is a scalar physical quantity and can come in many forms.

    Energy is a unique measure of various forms of movement and interaction of matter, a measure of the transition of matter from one form to another. The introduction of the concept of energy is important because if the physical system is closed, then its energy is stored in this system for the time during which the system will be closed.

    A closed system is a system that does not exchange energy with the outside. This statement is called the law of conservation of energy: energy is neither created nor destroyed,…

    Last review: March 15, 2020

    Solar power plant in Chernobyl

    Solar power plant in Chernobyl

    After years of abandonment of the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl nuclear plant, the Ukrainian authorities considered giving it a new use. In 2013, the way to turn the Te Chernobyl nuclear power plant into a huge solar power plant emerged.

    The Chernobyl nuclear plant suffered the worst nuclear accident in history when the core of its number 4 reactor exploded in 1985. The severity of the accident, together with poor management after the accident, generated a large amount of contaminated area and consequently abandoned .

    30 years later, it was proposed to give it a new utility: the idea was to convert the area into a photovoltaic solar energy plant, solar thermal energy and biogas…

    Last review: March 10, 2020

    Cyber ​​security in nuclear power plants

    Cyber ​​security in nuclear power plants

    In nuclear power plants there are large security measures. We are not talking about simple alarm systems to act quickly in the event of a system failure, but more important aspects such as depressurization of the core or its cooling.

    However, the cyber and technological security of nuclear power plants in Spain is virtually unknown. At a time when the Internet is so present (and there are so many cyber attacks on large companies), many people wonder if it would be possible to cyber attack a nuclear power plant, with the dire consequences that this could have.

    Can you cyber attack a nuclear power plant?

    Different security experts claim that it could be possible, although…

    Last review: March 9, 2020

    Mass Number

    Mass Number

    The mass number of a nuclide is the sum of the number of protons and the number of neutrons in the atomic nucleus (the number of protons is the atomic number). The mass number is noted as a superscript for the symbol, for example, 206 Pb. The notation Pb-206 is also used.

    The atomic mass of a nuclide (nuclide mass), minus the mass number, is called a mass surplus. It is between -0.1 and 0.22. If the nucleus mass is rounded to an integer, the mass number is obtained.

    The (relative) atomic mass of an element is a weighted average over the mass numbers of the isotopes. The weighting is based on the relative presence of isotopes in nature.

    Variation of the mass number in…

    Last review: February 27, 2020

    Embalse nuclear power plant, Argentina

    Embalse nuclear power plant, Argentina

    The Embalse nuclear power plant is a central power generation, located near the city of Embalse, province of Cordoba in Argentina.

    In addition to power generation has other applications in nuclear medicine because thanks to their recharge nuclear fuel during operation, is also used to generate isotopes for medical applications, such as cobalt 60

    From the point of view of the capacity of power generation, nuclear power plant reservoir has a capacity of 648 MWe gross power.

    The operator is Nucleoeléctrica Argentina S.A. since 1994.

    Chronology of the construction of the Embalse nuclear plant

    Last review: February 24, 2020

     Atucha-2 nuclear power plant, Argentina

     Atucha-2 nuclear power plant, Argentina

    Atucha II is a nuclear power plant in Argentina, based in Lima, Buenos Aires, built next to Atucha I. Its construction began in June 1981 under a contract with Siemens. Like Atucha I, is a nuclear reactor heavy pressure water (PHWR), planned to offer a much greater ptencia (about thermal energy. It must be 2,000 MW transformed into electricity remained at 750 MWe ). At the time it was started, he had the highest containment building around the world. The total cost is estimated at US $ 3.8 billion, or about $ 5500 / kWe, considerably higher than the world average $ 1500 / kWe.

    Partly in response to energy shortages caused by natural gas crisis of 2004, the issue of Atucha II nuclear…

    Last review: February 24, 2020

    Atucha-1 nuclear power plant, Argentina

     Atucha-1 nuclear power plant, Argentina

    Atucha I est située à 100 km de la ville de Buenos Aires (Argentine), près de la ville de Lima sur la rive droite du fleuve Paraná de las Palmas.

    A été exploitée pendant plus de 30 ans. Pendant ce temps, le réacteur nucléaire a généré plus de 65.000 millions de kWh d'énergie en utilisant 1400 tonnes d'uranium.

    Le carburant utilisé par le nucléaire, je l'Argentine est de 0,85% d'uranium enrichi. Pour la modération est utilitza refrigeracióny eau lourde (D20). Il appartient à la PHWR réacteur nucléaire (réacteur à eau sous pression…

    Last review: February 24, 2020