Scientific research: scientific techniques and methods

Scientific research: scientific techniques and methods

Scientific inquiry is a systematic and rigorous process that seeks to obtain new knowledge, expand existing understanding, and solve problems or answer questions in the realm of science.

It is an orderly and structured method that involves formulating a hypothesis or research question, designing a study plan, collecting and analyzing data, and reaching conclusions based on evidence.

This process follows an observational and experimental approach, using specific methods and techniques to collect data objectively and reliably.

Scientists use both experimental research, where they manipulate variables and control conditions to observe effects, and observational research, where phenomena are observed in their natural context without intervening in them.

The scientific inquiry process involves reviewing existing literature on the topic, formulating a clear research question, designing an experiment or study to answer that question, collecting and analyzing data, interpreting the results, and drawing conclusions based on the evidence obtained.

Scientific research covers a wide range of disciplines, such as physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, psychology, sociology, astronomy, among others. It contributes to the advancement of human knowledge and the development of new technologies, as well as to solving practical problems and making informed decisions in different fields.

Research techniques

There are various scientific research techniques that researchers use to collect data and obtain reliable results. Here are some of the more common techniques:

  1. Observation: This technique involves the systematic collection of data through direct observation of phenomena or behaviors in their natural environment. It can be done in a participatory way, where the researcher is part of the group being observed, or non-participant, where the researcher observes from the outside without interacting.

  2. Experiment: It is a technique used to investigate cause-effect relationships between variables. It involves deliberately manipulating one or more independent variables and measuring the effects they have on a dependent variable.

  3. Survey: It is a research technique that consists of collecting data by asking standardized questions to a representative sample of individuals.

  4. Interviews: Interviews are a qualitative technique in which the researcher asks participants open-ended questions to obtain detailed information about their experiences, opinions, and knowledge.

  5. Case study: This technique is used to thoroughly investigate a particular phenomenon or situation within its real context.

  6. Literature review: includes the collection and critical analysis of the existing scientific literature on a particular topic. It allows you to gain an overview of prior knowledge, identify research gaps, and support theories or hypotheses with existing evidence.

The scientists

Scientists are professionals dedicated to the study and systematic investigation of natural, social and technological phenomena with the aim of obtaining knowledge and understanding the world around us.

Their work is based on the scientific method, a rigorous and systematic approach to formulating questions, designing experiments or studies, collecting and analyzing data, and reaching conclusions based on evidence.

They often specialize in a specific area of ​​knowledge and may carry out theoretical, experimental, or observational research, depending on the field of study.

Scientists must also communicate their findings through scientific publications, presentations, and conferences, so that other researchers can review, replicate, and build on their work.

In addition to conducting research, scientists may also perform other important roles, such as:

  1. Formulation of hypotheses and research questions.

  2. Design of experiments and studies.

  3. Data collection and analysis.

  4. Development and application of theories and models.

  5. Publication of results in scientific journals.

  6. Participation in conferences and scientific presentations.

  7. Collaboration with other scientists and research teams.

  8. Obtaining financing for research projects.

  9. Teaching and mentoring of students and young scientists.

  10. Scientific dissemination for the general public.

The cientific method

The scientific method is a rigorous, systematic approach used by scientists to gain knowledge and understand the world around us. Although it may vary in your application depending on the field of study and the specific problem, it generally follows the steps below:

  1. Observation: The process begins with the observation of a particular phenomenon or situation. Based on this observation, the scientist formulates a question or identifies a research problem.

  2. Formulation of hypotheses: A hypothesis is a tentative explanation or a possible answer to the research question. It is based on prior knowledge and initial observation. The hypothesis must be specific, verifiable, and capable of being tested.

  3. Experimental or study design: In this stage, the design of the experiment or study is planned to test the hypothesis. The variables to be measured are determined and the procedures and conditions under which the investigation will be carried out are established.

  4. Data collection: Data collection is carried out according to the experimental design or the chosen methodological approach.

  5. Data analysis: Once the data has been collected, its analysis is carried out using statistical techniques or other appropriate methods.

  6. Interpretation of results: The results obtained are interpreted in the context of the hypothesis and the research question. The implications and conclusions that can be drawn from the data are discussed. It is evaluated if the results are consistent with the expectations and if there is a need to adjust or reformulate the initial hypothesis.

  7. Communication of results: The results and conclusions are communicated to the scientific community and/or to the general public. This can be done through publications in scientific journals, conference presentations, technical reports, or other means of dissemination.

Data de publicació: June 27, 2023
Última revisió: June 27, 2023