Nuclear power in France
In 1974 the French government decided to rapidly expand production capacity of nuclear power in France just after the first oil crisis. This Decision n was made in the context of a France with substantial competition in engineering, but few indigenous energy resources. Nuclear power, with the cost of fuel is a relatively small the total cost, in this sense, getting a reduction in imports and greater energy security could.
As a result of the decision of 1974, France currently has a high level of energy independence and almost the lowest cost electricity in Europe. It also has a level very low per capita CO2 emissions from electricity generation, since over 90% of its electricity is nuclear or hydroelectric.
In mid-2010 the International Energy Agency International urged France to take an increasingly strategic role as a provider of low cost, low energy consumption for the whole of Europe rather than concentrating on energy independence policy that had led since 1973.
recent Energy Policy
In 1999, a French parliamentary debate reaffirmed three main aspects of French energy policy:
- security of supply (France imports more than half of its energy),
- respect for the environment (especially greenhouse gas re)
- and attentional proper management of radioactive waste.
It was noted that natural gas had no economic advantage over nuclear power for base-load power, and their prices are very volatile. Though "intensive efforts "Could not find the way for renewable energy and energy saving measures could replace nuclear energy in the near future.
In early 2003 it was announced the first national energy debate in France, in response to a "high demand for the French", 70% of which were considered ill-informed about energy issues. A survey showed that 67% of people in France thought that environmental protection was the sole objective of energy policy in France. However, 58% thought nuclear power was the cause of climate change, while only 46% thought it was because of the burning of coal. Discussion focused on preparing the way for the definition of the energy mix for the next 30 years in the context of sustainable development within Europe and globally.
In 2005, France established guidelines for energy policy and security by law. The role of nuclear energy would be essential for such energy policy with specific decisions ; FICAS on European Water Reactor Pressure (EPR), in particular to build a nuclear reactor in order to start to make a decision in 2015 on the construction of a series of around 40 nuclear reactors . It also provides policy research for the development of innovative energy technologies in line with the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions highlighting the role of energy production of renewable electrical energy, thermal and transport applications.
In early 2008, a presidential decree established a High Level Nuclear Policy Council (Conseil Politique Nucleaire - CPN), underscoring the importance of nuclear technology in France in terms of economic power , monkey, in particular the power source.
Current status of nuclear power in France
France ranks second worldwide, behind the United States by number of nuclear power and the first by population density. EDF is the national electricity company and the largest producer of electricity from nuclear sources.
In France are 19 nuclear power plants with a total of 58 nuclear reactors. They are at a maximum distance of 600km between them and they are less than 1 km. housing.
Certain French plants first generation, until now in operation today have an uncertain future due to the nuclear accident in Japan.
However, the French reactors, operating with a different technology than the Japanese. These work by so-called dual circuit system, this means that the first closed circuit comes in direct contact with the reactor over 300 degrees, then enters into communication with the second circuit which generates sufficient steam for operation turbines generating electricity. Instead Fukushima steam is produced directly by the single circuit to pass directly inside the reactor.
In France there are not many games that pose a change in nuclear energy model. It should be borne in mind that 86% of the energy generated France is produced by nuclear power plants.
At present, France produces electricity cheaper than other countries and less aggressive in CO2 emissions.
In the south of France is researching and developing the third generation of nuclear fusion. The enormous cost of this work are funded by Japan, the United States and other countries. This type of generator will be much safer, less radioactive waste and will produce three times more electricity.