The Manhattan Project is the code name given by Roosevelt to a top-secret project to obtain the nuclear bomb. The project was under the direction of Major General Leslie Groves of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.
In 1939, at the beginning of World War II, Albert Einstein alerted the United States' President, FD Roosevelt. He wrote a letter telling him that the atomic bomb is possible and that the Germans could have it.
Einstein was sure that it was possible to achieve a nuclear chain reaction. Einstein based his speculations on the research work carried out by:
Enrico Fermi and Leo Szilard, in the United States
Frédéric Joliot and his wife Irene Joliot-Curie, in France.
This procedure would also allow the construction of a new class of bombs.
Why Did the United States Begin the Manhattan Project?
The beginnings of the Manhattan Project were a consequence of a letter that A. Einstein sent to President Roosevelt.
Einstein mentioned the shortage of uranium reserves in the USA. The mines for this mineral - he said - were in former Czechoslovakia and the Belgian Congo.
The letter was
Furthermore, he reported that Germany had suspended uranium sale from Czech mines, which the Reich had taken over. This fact could mean that scientists at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute could be conducting nuclear fission experiments. It would mean that in the next step, Nazi Germany could get nuclear weapons.
Albert Einstein's fear of nuclear war could be a consequence of his profound knowledge of research advances in this field.
Who Authorized the Manhattan Project?
Franklin D. Roosevelt created a commission to deal with the issues above, resulting from the letter.
Between 1940 and 1941, the commission to work on uranium and graphite systems. In the late 1940s, Glen Seaborg discovered an artificial element that could be used to make the atomic bomb (plutonium-239).
The Manhattan Project officially began in 1941 with the Japanese attack on the Pearl Harbor military base. His collaborators included several Nobel laureates, including Edward Teller. However, Albert Einstein was not directly involved.
The bomb's manufacture was entrusted to the army in a war project that would cost around 2,500 million dollars. The program contemplated two alternatives:
The production of plutonium-239 in graphite reactors.
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a wide range of Manhattan Project historical resources.
The wartime Manhattan Project left a legacy in the form of national laboratories:
The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
Los Alamos National Laboratory.
Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
Argonne National Laboratory.
Why Was It Called the Manhattan Project?
The project's name was the Manhattan Project because of the engineer districts. By convention, they carried the city's name where they were located. In this case, the project was designated to the Manhattan District.
What Was the World's First Nuclear Reactor?
Chicago Pile (CP-1) was the name of the world's first nuclear reactor. It was developed within the Manhattan Project.
On December 2, 1942, man achieved the first artificial nuclear chain reaction. Until then, it was only theoretical physics.
A group of European nuclear physicists who emigrated to the United States carried out the work. The Italian physicist Enrico Fermi led them.
In 1943 there were three cities full of research facilities:
Oak Ridge (Tennessee) to separate uranium-235 from uranium-238.
Hanford for the establishment of nuclear reactors.
Los Alamos (New Mexico) for the construction of the atomic bomb.
The Los Alamos laboratory director was Robert Oppenheimer of the University of California. Oppenheimer was able to reunite to near a thousand scientists who would remain there until six months after finishing the fight.
What Looked Like the Chicago Pile?
The Chicago Pile (CP-1) nuclear reactor was simple in structure. It was installed under the grandstand of the American football stadium at the University of Chicago.
Fermi used uranium fuel, like the one used in Rome's experiments, and a graphite moderator.
What Was the Purpose of the Chicago Pile Reactor?
The objective of the research was to obtain a controlled chain reaction. The experiment would allow the study of its properties for the possible development of an atomic bomb.
Where and When Was the First Nuclear Test Carried Out?
On July 16, 1945, the plutonium atomic bomb's first test was successfully carried out in the Alamogordo desert (New Mexico).
The uranium and plutonium atomic bombs were ready at the same time.
What Was the Result of the Manhattan Project?
The Manhattan Project developed two nuclear bombs. The United States Army dropped both bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Japan finally accepted the surrender and ended World War II.
The first, called Little Boy, consisted of two masses of uranium-235. Conventional explosives projected both assemblies onto each other. The Enola plane dropped it on August 6, 1945.
The second, Fat Man, consisted of a hollow sphere of plutonium. It collapsed on its center by the action of conventional explosives. It was dropped on August 9, generating a second radioactive mushroom cloud.