Nuclear power in Chile
Nuclear power in Chile appears for the first time in 1964 with the approach of the project that made Dr. Cruz-Coke.
Chilean Commission of Nuclear Energy
The most important organization is the CCHEN Chile (Chilean Commission of Nuclear Energy) which is responsible for everything that is related to the peaceful use of nuclear energy . (Since nuclear energy was initially used for military purposes).
The CCHEN, has two nuclear reactors for research, Center for Nuclear Studies at Aguirre and The Queen. The center performs all related applications of nuclear energy. In addition, the activities performed CCHEN training professionals and students in the field of Chilean nuclear energy.
After the United States in 1955 published information on nuclear materials, Dr. Eduardo Cruz-Coke Lassabe (important Chilean physician and politician), thought that nuclear power would very important for Chile. What caused the Senate of Chile proposed the creation of an institution to regulate aspects of nuclear energy. Ten years later he created the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN).
Cruz-Coke launched important projects, including the construction is the first nuclear power plant by the CCHEN and Endesa. Although despite the initial enthusiasm governments preferred to avoid risks to a project as expensive and as a long-term performance. by contrast, if it has existed in Chile regulation on issues related to nuclear power.
In Chile distinguishes three stages in the nuclear development:
- Exploration technology between 1955 and 1964.
- Technological research between 1964 and 1974
- The experimental level from 1983 onwards.
Exploration technology of nuclear energy in Chile (1955-1964)
The first was to send officers to study scientific advances and technology of nuclear power in other countries. Meanwhile Chile entered the CIEN (American Nuclear Energy Commission), which was created for the cooperation of the states of the commission to the peaceful use of nuclear energy. This was in 1959, the same year that Chile signed agreements with each other to provide U.S. support research related to nuclear energy and another was the Antarctic Treaty, which among other things, prohibited nuclear explosions and radioactive waste phaseout in this territory.
A year later, in 1960, Chile became a member of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).
In 1962 he began to conduct training in the clinical use of radioisotopes.
In 1963 he signed the partial test ban in the atmosphere. That same year he was elected Chile's state IAEA representing Latin America.
Finally, on April 16, 1964 Dr. Eduardo Cruz-Coke got to realize his first project: the creation of the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) of which he was its first president.
Technology Research (1964-1974)
This was characterized by the formation of plans, creation of infrastructure, signing technical assistance agreements, the creation of advisory committees in various areas, attracting Chilean professionals or foreigners to engage in nuclear power development in Chile.
Among these we highlight the following facts:
Creating the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission
In 1965 he created the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission as a continuation of the previous committee. It was created as an autonomous body of the state administration with the aim of addressing the problems associated with the production, acquisition, transfer, transport and peaceful use of atomic energy and of fissile and radioactive materials.
The most important mission of CCHEN was proposing the bill to the Atomic Energy Commission. The respective law was implemented on October 23, 1965.
In 1966 the University of Californa donated to the University of Chile a cyclotron. This grant was very important for the national RESEARCH AND physical training in the nuclear field.
The CCHEN also sponsored projects Chilean universities on topics such as medicine, agriculture, chemistry and others.
Establishment of the nuclear research center "Central Queen"
In 1966 was the creation of a nuclear research center "Central Queen". This year there were about 120 professionals working in 29 groups of researchers working teachers in core aspects of medicine, physics, biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology, veterinary science pure etc.
Measurement of environmental radioactivity
The Department of Physics, Faculty of Physics and Mathematics, University of Chile, held that year the first measurements of radioactivity in the air, in Easter Island and Juan Fernandez . Later CCHEN determined a national environmental radioactivity measurement with the help of the National Health Service, the University of Chile, the Chilean Air Force and the Technical University Federico Santa Mary.
Also the 1966 Chile signed with different countries and international agreement on peaceful uses of nuclear energy.
In late 1968 he created the Center for Nuclear Studies Queen. From 1968 became radiological control of milk and grass. In July 1969 the environmental radioactivity laboratory moved to CEN Queen.
In 1970 the first building was completed CEN Queen. The first laboratories were enabled nuclear applications related to nuclear energy in industry, agriculture and hidrologíay dosimetry staff.
In 1972 Chile signed an agreement with Spain for collaborative research of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. This agreement led to the start of work of the Centre for Nuclear Studies also participate Lo Aguirre Nuclear Energy Board of Spain.
In 1973 CCHEN created the Institute of Nuclear Medicine (IMN) and the Center for Nuclear Studies Army (DINE). A year later he launched the service of CCHEN radiation medicine.
On June 21, 1966 received CCHEN facilities and projects nuclear research center of the army, with the goal of unifying all development of nuclear power in Chile in a single agency.
In 1980 the board gave a new orientation CCHEN. With the aim of giving greater national development, improve safety and improve certain operational aspects radioproteccióny.
experimentally from 1983
It designs the "nuclear development plan" for the purpose of performing a roadworthy reglamentacióny nuclear safety and radiation protection, develop an active policy of international relations and putting facilities pilot level in order to develop a future program of nuclear power plants.
On May 2, 1984 promulgating the law on nuclear safety. Which four years later transferred control function radioactive facilities categoríaa CCHEN first.
A year later he signed the "Protocol for cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy" with China Nuclear Corporation.
In 1994 Chile signed in Vienna convention on nuclear safety.
In 1995 Chile became part of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT).